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2020

Disruption of Information Exchange Routines in Construction Projects: Perception and Response Patterns

Building Research and Information

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The current proliferation of custom information exchange initiatives in projects disrupts information exchange routines of design and construction firms. This paper investigates how firms perceive, interpret, and act upon information exchange requirements that do not align with their existing routines. This case study examines a construction project for which the owner specified highly custom requirements for digital production and delivery of project submittals. Using ethnographic methods, the project parties’ existing routines and their patterns of perceiving and responding to the requirements were identified. These patterns showed that the parties perceived disruptions to the existing dispositions and rules that guided their routines and shaped their performance across projects. The project parties used a combination of deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning mechanisms to interpret the requirements, expose the inefficiencies associated with their workflows, and set new ground rules for action. The grounded propositions in this study hold that the limited opportunities for inductive reasoning and reflective assessment of workflows in projects can press project parties into identifying alternative workflows through cognitive search and abductive reasoning. This, in turn, results in highly situated, temporary, and fragmented workflows that are not durable and effective to contribute to refinement of existing information exchange routines.

  • Authors: Hamid Abdirad, Carrie Dossick, Brian R Johnson, Giovanni Migliaccio
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2020

Use of Helmholtz resonators for noise attenuation

DMG White papers

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Acoustics is the only category in which a LEED-rated office building performs worse than a conventional building. The exposed hard surfaces and the lack of partitions cause easy propagation of conversational sounds between work-stations in an open office. Research has shown that excess speech levels in the office cause disturbance to the occupants and can affect their work performance. For a productive acoustic environment, the speech levels are to be maintained lower than the background noises which plays a masking role for the remote speech sounds. The speech sound levels can be reduced with the inclusion of sound absorptive materials. In particular, resonant absorbers perform well in the case of open-plan office speech levels. This paper discusses the basic principles of a Helmholtz resonator. Classical lumped approach is used for evaluating the absorptive quality of the resonator. Modifications to the geometry of the basic construct as explored by Selamet, S.K.Tang, Y.H.Kim and a few others, are discussed along with their analytical formulation. Methods that govern an array of resonators are given as they can overcome the limitation of a narrow absorption bandwidth of a resonator. Evolutionary solver is used for automating the process of Helmholtz resonator panel design. The application of such an array or a panel in a room would be discussed along with the trade-offs for an optimal acoustic comfort.

  • Author: Vidhya Rajendran
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2019

An Analysis of Urban Form and Canyon for Performative Daylighting Design

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Urbanization and densification are generally posed as a dichotomy between economic vitality and access to sunlight, daylight, and views. Daylight provides the highest quality of light. Building façade design should allow adequate levels of daylight penetration, and reduce the need for artificial lighting. Previous research and technology had focused on window sizes, window location, glazing types, and design of external and internal shading devices. However, the critical effects of surrounding block building mass, façade material reflectivity, and their interrelationship are overlooked in most daylighting design and research. Although recent studies on urban planning concentrate on daylight availability, and utilize climate based annual daylighting simulations in a given urban zone or block, the general tendency is to oversimplify the simulation models to facilitate rapid simulation processes. Computational efficiency is necessary, but the credibility of the simulation results depend on the accuracy of the input data. This thesis addresses to a need for a refined workflow for urban level daylighting simulations. The refined workflow provides flexibility in changing the design criteria, material reflectivity, and automated shadings operations. This proposed daylighting analysis workflow addresses to a gap between urban-level and building-level designs. It is used to explore solutions, where densification and performative daylighting design are mutually beneficial. The resulting data are used to critically discuss the limitations of current urban zoning rules. Alternative developing patterns and façade designs are demonstrated to support better daylit urban layouts and buildings.

  • Author: Shakiba Ahmadi
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2019

A Comparative Analysis of LCA Tools: Studying the Façade of a Campus Lab Building

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Through the advancement of sustainable design methods, life cycle assessment (LCA) is becoming a significant part of sustainable practices. To have reliable assessment results, however, the strengths and weaknesses of the assessment tools should be explored. This thesis studies life cycle assessment as a method to evaluate the environmental impacts of the buildings. The purpose of this study is to compare the analyses results of two LCA tools: the Revit-based Tally plugin and the Athena Impact Estimator (IE). The study explores a building façade system as the case study at three different scales: the primary materials, façade components, and the whole-building façade. Athena IE and Tally are applied to the case study to compare the user input framework, bill of materials, and outputs. While the development of BIM-based LCA tools helps designers, engineers, and contractors, this study finds that the tools are highly dependent on the data input methods to generate reliable LCA outcomes. It also suggests that in order to improve software interfaces, a wider consideration of LCA input methods is necessary.

  • Author: Laleh Amany
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2019

A2B: A Toolkit for Computing Circulation Metrics in Buildings

Building Simulation 2019

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    One challenging consideration in architectural design is the movement, or circulation, of building occupants. Poor circulation design can lead to daily frustration—and hazardous conditions in emergencies, while good circulation design can promote productivity and occupant safety. Architects generally address the challenges with rules of thumb, personal experience, and simple calculations. Today, availability of computational power invites a more careful approach, but this depends on establishing: (a) effective representation of spaces, (b) an efficient means of determining routes, and (c) suitable design metrics. We present “A2B”, a toolkit that addresses the first two of these, and demonstrate it with a series of simple calculators. The toolkit consists of two components: a semi-automated workflow for converting regular architectural data (floor plans) from CAD or BIM applications into a format usable for analysis, and a modified version of a fast and accurate artificial intelligence pathfinding algorithm called Theta*. Prototype applications based on the toolkit and tested on an education building, illustrate how the A2B toolkit can be used in design evaluation.

  • Authors: Arash Naderpour, Brian R Johnson, Alex Anderson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2019

Bot + Bot: Multi-Robot Collaboration in Architecture

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The use of robots in architecture and construction has gained importance in the last few years. They offer the possibility to change the way we build, expand the design ideas and possibilities, and add more automation on construction sites with the goal of enhancing the productivity. This work looks at robotic fabrication, and more particularly the use of multi-robot systems in architecture. A first look at the definition of robots and robotic systems as being an “assemblage” helps understand the characteristics needed for robotic systems in architecture. A classification of the types of coordination and communication according to the existing literature is then introduced. From existing fabrication projects, aspects and challenges of multi-robot fabrication are discussed. These include coordination, planning, communication and precision. Afterwards, a series of prototypes using an industrial robot arm and an educational mobile robot serve to illustrate some of the challenges. The combination of these two robots, with their different types and specificities, also demonstrates the flexibility of robotic systems and their possibilities. The work is concluded by a discussion on the integration of robotic fabrication in the design process.

  • Author: Ghada Mami
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2019

X-Maps: A Computational Method for Space Planning Using Multi-Variate Occupant Comfort

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The indoor experience can be affected by several environmental conditions, including visual, thermal and acoustic comfort, air quality, biophilia, layout, and aesthetic. There are physical metrics for each aspect that are calculating the occupant’s comfort. There are also external factors such as occupant’s characteristics like metabolic rate and clothing insulation, building’s characteristics, and outdoor climate. Most of the conventional practices come up with very similar solutions for different locations and conditions; so, my purpose is to provide a comprehensive tool that overlaps different comfort factors in office buildings and can give designers an overall and broader perspective on space planning based on experiential conditions and locations. Computer simulation is used to provide the information needed. The simulation tools include the visual scripting software Grasshopper and plugins such as Ladybug, Honeybee, and EnergyPlus. The results are reflected graphically in the form of a tool to guide designers at the early stages of the office interior space planning process.

  • Author: Elham Soltani
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2019

Robotics Workshop

DMG Workshop

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    An introduction to the College's Kuka robotic arm and programming via (a) the attached "pendant" interface, and (b) the "KukaPRC" Grasshopper plugin. Open to all students.

  • Author: Ghada Mami
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2019

Promise for greater efficiency in practicing architecture

DJCOregon

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This blog post talks about a few of the potential applications of machine learning and neural networks in architecture. The author interviewed Brian Johnson as part of the background research for the piece.

  • Author: Alex Visser
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2019

2019 Barry Onouye Endowed Studio

Architecture Blog

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Each Onouye studio highlights the intersection of architecture and structural design. With a central theme of PERFORMANCE, this year’s studio (offered with Endowed Chair Sigrid Adriaenssens from Princeton University), has focused on tension-based structures, ranging from hanging nets to tensioned membranes. With a generous donation of nets and ropes from Diamond Nets in Bellingham, our studio has the unique opportunity to design and install at full-scale.

  • Author: Tyler S. Sprague
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2018

Deep Learning in Design Workflows – The Elusive Design Pixel

International Journal of Architectural Computing (IJAC)

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The recent wave of developments and research in the field of deep learning and artificial intelligence is causing the border between the intuitive and deterministic domains to be redrawn, especially in computer vision and natural language processing. As designers frequently invoke vision and language in the context of design, this article takes a step back to ask if deep learning’s capabilities might be applied to design workflows, especially in architecture. In addition to addressing this general question, the article discusses one of several prototypes, BIMToVec, developed to examine the use of deep learning in design. It employs techniques like those used in natural language processing to interpret building information models. The article also proposes a homogeneous data format, provisionally called a design pixel, which can store design information as spatial-semantic maps. This would make designers’ intuitive thoughts more accessible to deep learning algorithms while also allowing designers to communicate abstractly with design software.

  • Authors: Ranjeeth Mahankali, Brian R Johnson, Alex Anderson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2018

Measuring circadian lighting through high dynamic range photography

Lighting Research and Technology

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The human ocular system functions in a dual manner. While the most well-known function is to facilitate vision, a growing body of research demonstrates its role in resetting the internal body clock to synchronize with the 24-hour daily cycle. Most research on circadian rhythms is performed in controlled laboratory environments. Little is known about the variability of circadian light within the built and natural environments. Currently, very few specialized devices measure the circadian light, and they are not accessible to many researchers and practitioners. In this paper, tristimulus colour calibration procedures for high dynamic range photography are developed to measure circadian lighting. Camera colour accuracy is evaluated through CIE trichromatic (XYZ) measurements; and the results demonstrate a strong linear relationship between the camera recordings and a scientific-grade colorimeter. Therefore, it is possible to correct for the colour aberrations and use high dynamic range photographs to measure both photopic and circadian lighting values. Spectrophotometric measurements are collected to validate the methodology. Results demonstrate that measurements from high dynamic range photographs can correspond to the physical quantity of circadian luminance with reasonable precision and repeatability. Circadian data collected in built environments can be utilized to study the impact of design decisions on human circadian entrainment and to create guidelines and metrics for designing circadian friendly environments.

  • Authors: Bo Jung, Mehlika Inanici
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2018

From A to B: An algorithmic approach to circulation inside buildings

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Circulation design is a challenging part of the architectural design process. Architects traditionally address these challenges based largely on rules of thumb, personal experience, and simple tools. The modern environment, with greater computational power available, invites a more careful analysis and consideration. The purpose of this project is to illustrate how algorithmic tools can be used to simulate human behaviors during the architectural design process or after construction of the building to improve building's performance. To achieve this objective, analysis approaches related to congestion, emergency egress, and wayfinding inside architectural space were surveyed. Then an algorithmic toolkit was developed based on an artificial intelligence pathfinding algorithm called Theta*. Finally, several application prototypes were created to illustrate application of the toolkit to (a) evaluating positive and negative implications of congestion in the design of the buildings, (b) assessing congestion during emergency egress situations, and (c) assist individuals navigating complex buildings.

  • Author: Arash Naderpour
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2018

Brian Johnson Advocates for BIM as a Foundational Architectural Design Tool

UW Arch blog

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    In the recent "Future Proof" episode of By Design, a short film and interview series produced by GRAPHISOFT, Associate Professor Emeritus of Architecture Brian Johnson describes the importance of integrative design technologies and processes, like BIM, in architecture education.

  • Author: Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2018

Assessing the Potential Applications of Deep Learning in Design

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The recent wave of developments and research in the field of deep learning and artificial intelligence is causing the border between the intuitive and deterministic domains to be redrawn. Amidst all the excitement surrounding this field, there are several prototypes being made, most of which are narrow, single purpose applications of deep learning technologies. This thesis takes a step back to establish a broader understanding of the new class of algorithms that deep learning offers. Beginning with the observation that architectural design workflow is often characterized by several representational transformations as projects grow in resolution and complexity, from sketching to detailed drawings or models, this research developed a series of deep learning prototypes that illustrate the potential application of this technology in the larger design workflow. This paper discusses the performance of these prototypes, identifies the challenges for integrating deep learning in practical design applications. This paper also suggests some ways in which these technologies might affect how the design process is carried out.

  • Author: Ranjeeth Mahankali
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2018

Queens of Technology: Getting to know the 2019 MS Design Computing Cohort

UW Arch blog


2017

EBOSS: Evolutionary Building Operations Systems Solver

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    An individual wakes up every morning and prepares themselves for the day by checking the daily forecast either through their phone or by the news. In response to either the hot or cold temperature, amount of precipitation, or wind speed, he or she will apply the correct number of layers in accordance with the day's weather conditions. This is done to achieve a maximum amount of comfort during the whole day and gives the person a sense of flexibility to the changes within a day. If a building could respond like a person, by checking the daily forecast and countering with passive and active systems as needed, then it would reduce the building's reliance on active systems that would require more energy use. How can Building Automation Systems utilize these predictive climate technologies to circumvent current oversights and environmental control errors? EBOSS, or Evolutionary Building Operations Systems Solver, is a grasshopper definition developed specifically to help an existing building foster more appropriate responses to changing weather conditions that create oversights and environmental control errors. EBOSS provides simple, interactive systems selection for the building that utilizes an Artificial Neural Network for a more intelligent Building Automation System. This methodology was devised after observing that there is a lack in the amount of depth and understanding of how and why systems are being used which limits each system within a building to stationary setpoints that are unable to adjust to changing weather. EBOSS will instead think of each system not as a single stationary element, but will control and maintain the building's systems based on past, present, and future data.

  • Author: John Dylan Davis
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2017

The Bullitt Center: A Comparative Analysis Between Simulated and Operational Performance

TECHNOLOGY | ARCHITECTURE + DESIGN

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Energy and thermal comfort simulations guide the design of integrated building systems in modern high performance buildings. Once the building is operational, design simulations provide a useful baseline against which to measure demonstrated performance. Deviation from this baseline is the starting point for generating feedback on both the design of building systems and operational improvements. Design simulations, a robust monitoring system for tracking operations, and digital tools to process and visualize post-occupancy data are the elements of a diagnostic methodology used in this investigation of night-flush cooling strategies employed in Seattle's Bullitt Center. This methodology suggests a framework for stewardship systems aimed at the continuous improvement of building performance.

  • Authors: Robert Pena, Chris Meek, Dylan Davis

2017

Parametric Exploration of Shading Screens: Daylight, Sun Penetration, and view Factor

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Parametric Exploration of Shading Screens investigates a suite of performance criteria that can be used to select a shading screen. Shading screens can be effective means of controlling sun penetration and daylight availability in a given space. The evaluation criteria varies depending on the functionality of the space and the intended visual effect. It is possible to achieve diffuse or dynamic environments, bright or dim spaces, with the right light levels and the control of glare. A combination of a variety of screen patterns and openness factors are created using parametric modeling techniques and evaluated using daylighting simulations. The outcome is a workflow to create and select the right shading screen to design the luminous environment for the intended visual effect, visual comfort, and performance.

  • Author: Doaa AlSharif
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2017

Configurable Space: Architectural Robotics at the Scale of Furniture

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The subject of architectural robotics is an important contemporary issue that urges effort of investigation and understanding in a changing technological world. The Digital Revolution, which is the shift from analog and mechanical to digital technology with the proliferation of the computer and Internet, has brought many great possibilities of interaction among people. However, this advance in digital, ubiquitous and interactive technology has not rendered deep changes in architecture yet. The built environment still is inelastic and unresponsive to people's input. In grappling with this issue, this paper broadly investigates the subject of architectural robotics, highlighting the current stage of development of the field, and stipulating the reasons for the recent growing interest in it. This paper also explores the stimulus and causes of architectural robotics, points out the key elements of this subject, and examines several types of built environment adaptation. The great part of this paper, however, documents the process and analyzes the result of an empirical study conducted to explore new opportunities of architectural robotic at the scale of furniture. In this study, I introduce and describe a novel, intelligent and networked suite of robotic furniture, which aims to work as an assistive technology to support aging in place. I present the design and construction of this robotic suite composed of two robotic furniture elements, a chair, which supports lifting; and a screen, which transforms the space and provides various activities within the same location. The thesis also reports on an initial experiment with a senior volunteer, evaluates the two robotic furniture items, and proposes future directions for investigation.

  • Author: Carlos H Aguiar
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2017

Architecture and Social Media

DMG White Papers

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This research studies the Twitter activity of eight of the biggest architecture companies in the United States by collecting a substantial portion of the tweets each has posted over the lifespan of its Twitter account and measuring two types of interactivity in each tweet---interpersonal interactivity (via hashtags, retweets and mentions) and machine interactivity (via hyperlinks). It then draws insights about each firm`s success in building awareness and increasing influence by determining the number of times people who post tweets about architecture, mention each of the firms on Twitter. Subsequently, the study investigates the relationship between the level of attention each firm receives on Twitter and three selected properties of their tweets: 1- interpersonal interactivity. 2- Machine interactivity 3- content of the tweets.

  • Author: Arash Naderpour
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2017

Measuring circadian light through High Dynamic Range (HDR) photography

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Human ocular system functions in a dual manner. While the most well know function is to facilitate vision, a growing body of research demonstrates its role in resetting the internal body clock to synchronize with the 24 hour daily cycle. The internal body clock in human beings is close to, but not equal to, 24 hour rhythms, and it requires environmental cues, such as timed light and dark cycles, to synchronize with the local time. Before the introduction of electrical lighting, human's patterns of light and dark exposures followed the natural diurnal cycles. In the modern days, this pattern changes drastically as 90% of adult human life is spent indoors and electric lighting prominently disturbs the nocturnal cycles. With most research on circadian rhythm performed in controlled laboratory environments, little is known about the variability of circadian light within built and natural environment. Currently, very few specialized devices measure the circadian light which are not accessible to many researchers and practitioners. Therefore, there is a need for accessible measurement devices. In this thesis, calibration and validation procedures of High Dynamic Range (HDR) photography to measure circadian light is developed and tested. Accuracy of HDR photographs to measure photopic luminance have been previously validated. However, color accuracy of camera sensors hasn't been studied, and precise color information is required to accurately capture circadian light. In this thesis, camera color accuracy was evaluated through CIE trichromatic (XYZ) measurements; results demonstrated strong linear relationship between the camera recordings and scientific grade colorimeter. By applying simple correction, it is possible to correct color alignment, and therefore, to use HDR photographs to capture both photopic (lux and cd/m2) and circadian lighting values (Equivalent Melanopic Lux, EML or Equivalent Melanopic cd/m2). The developed technique and workflow has been used to capture outdoor and indoor scenes. Various examples illustrate the impact of architectural context, weather, view direction and spectra of light on circadian light exposure. Given data reduction in CIE XYZ measurements, full spectrum measurements were further collected to test validation of the methodology. Field and laboratory studies showed circadian light measurements from HDR Photographs corresponded to physical quantity of circadian luminance with reasonable precision and repeatability.

  • Author: Bo Jung
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2017

An investigation of the daylighting simulation techniques and sky modeling practices for occupant centric evaluations

Building and Environment

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Occupant centric performance approaches in daylighting studies promote design decisions that support human visual comfort, productivity, and visual preferences, along with more conventional energy efficiency criteria. Simulating per-pixel luminance values and luminance distribution patterns for the entire scene allows us to analyze the occupant centric metrics and performance criteria. However, there are a number of different sky models, complex fenestration models, and simulation techniques that produce either conventional point in time images or annual luminance maps. This paper discusses the similarities and differences between different techniques; and a comparison analyses provides insight about their impact on occupant centric lighting measures. The comparisons for sky modeling include the conventional CIE skies (Clear, Intermediate, and Overcast), measurement based CIE models, Perez all-weather skies, and high dynamic range image based skies. The comparison of simulation techniques include point in time simulations, image based lighting simulations, and annual luminance simulations (three-phase and five-phase methods). Results demonstrate that measurement based sky models match real world conditions with reasonable proximity, and generic CIE skies consistently underestimate the indoor lighting conditions. Annual simulation methods provide a large database of temporal luminance variations, where individual instances are comparable to point in time simulations. Long term luminance simulations provide opportunities to evaluate the percentage of the year that a given luminance based criteria is met or violated.

  • Authors: Mehlika Inanici, Alireza Hashemloo

2016

Design Computing: An overview of an emergent field

Routledge Press

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    An overview of the fundamentals of design computing and an introduction to the persistent questions in the field (design problems, cognition, representation, expertise, solutions, smart environments, and pedagogy) in a readable and engaging form, with references designed to let you dive deeper into the questions that interest you.

  • Author: Brian R Johnson

2016

Hypar-Active User Manual

DMG Reports


2016

Time-series Luminance Distribution Maps: implementation of annual daylight simulation methods for occupant visual comfort analysis

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This thesis investigates the existing annual climate-based daylight simulation methodologies for providing time-series luminance distribution data that can be utilized for occupant visual comfort analysis. The motivation is stemmed from an imminent change in lighting research and practice that incorporates more luminance based simulation and metrics, as opposed to the historical use of illuminance based studies. Luminance based metrics provide better understanding of human visual experience, and allows us to design and study occupant centric luminous environments. An implementation workflow for the most advanced annual climate-based daylight simulation methodologies (The Three-phase and Five-phase daylighting simulation methods) based on the existing literature is provided as an explanatory guideline for non-developer designers and daylight practitioners. The simulation workflow is demonstrated using an office space in downtown Seattle. Each methodology's capability to simulate the real-world complexities associated with distribution of daylight in interior spaces is evaluated.

  • Author: Alireza Hashemloo
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2016

HyparActive: A Design Exploration Tool for Multi-segment Hyperbolic Paraboloid Shells

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    While thin shell structures could offer efficient solutions to modern design problems, designer familiarity with the strengths and limitations of the form have declined in recent years. Thin shell structures are seeing a resurgence of interest due to modern fabrication techniques, but are hampered by the difficulty of balancing form manipulation and structural analysis concerns during early design. In this paper we describe HyparActive, a software tool developed specifically to help designers explore and design a remarkably wide range of thin shell forms. HyparActive provides simple interactive 3D form-manipulation tools for the designer and quick Finite Element Analysis (FEA) feedback regarding the shell's structural behavior. Developed in an algorithmic modeling environment, the tool allows users to define, manipulate and visualize a parametric form consisting of one or more hyperbolic paraboloid (hypar) shell fragments. The shell is put through a quick FEA analysis, using user-specified material properties, and the resulting stresses are used to color-code the model rendering, highlighting overstressed areas. The quick feedback available on a standard PC means the designer can interactively explore how form and stress distributions interact, informing design decisions and enhancing their design "intuition." The thesis also reflects on the challenges of developing an interactive learning tool in a parametric modeling environment and the benefits of including performance analysis in the conceptual design phase.

  • Author: Winston Davis
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2016

Responsive Environments Exhibit

Course capstone

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    A project of the Winter quarter 2016 course, Arch 498C: "Creating Responsive Environments", in which Architecture and HCDE students combined some simple electronics, Arduino programming, and design skills to create a series of responsive projects, culminating in an exhibit in the department's lobby area.

  • Authors: Doaa AlSharif, Dana Lee, Carolyn Huynh, Dylan Davis, Sabina Cao, Virginia Bradbury.

2016

Virtual Environments, Rendered Realism and Their Effects on Spatial Memory

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This thesis study is designed to document the process and analyze the results of a study conducted to determine the relationship between realism in rendering and the user's spatial memory of the space which was experienced when in virtual reality. This study is being developed in order to better establish virtual reality as a representational tool for architects when describing their design ideas to clients. Virtual reality, as a relatively new technology to the architectural profession, has relied on its ability to surprise and wow its audience, but as virtual reality becomes more ubiquitous and less novel, how and when does it become most effective? This thesis is designed to investigate one aspect of virtual reality, the realism of the environment, and draw conclusions based on that study. The study is conducted using the Oculus Rift Development Kit 2 (DK2) and takes the user through three separate realism levels of the same space and then tests their memory of each environment. Their results are then used to determine their level of spatial retention of each experience giving the researchers an idea of how their comprehension of the space was affected by the level of detail present in the environment. All three virtual environments are of the same space with the realism of the enviroment being the only factor manipulated. This study is being conducted to determine how and when the use of virtual reality as a representational tool in architecture yields the greatest psychological benefits for the potential clients and designers who utilize the tool. It is our theory that the higher levels of realism will yield higher impact to spatial memory. Due to constraints in time and subject pool this study is being developed as an outline or initial investigation that is designed to be expanded into a larger scale study in the future.

  • Author: Stephen Lekan
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2016

Regenerative Early Educational Facility for Underrepresented Children In Pratiksha Nagar, Mumbai

MArch (HPB) Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Children of all age, class, sex and region deserve an equal opportunity to good quality education. Research shows that investing in early education reaps long term socio-economic benefits for a country. This makes early education all the more important for sub-developed countries. Studies show that the primary reason for high drop-out rate in India is due to the lack of good quality educational facilities for the lower income groups. This thesis studies an existing not-for-profit educational facility, working towards providing equal opportunities for low-income group families of the nearby informal settlements. While the social impact is large, due to shortage on space, the outreach has plateaued. This calls for a need to grow in size and quality, to match the ever-growing demand for services and psychological needs of its users. The physical environment of a learning space has an impact on students' achievements. This thesis asks what makes good quality educational facilities in sub-developed countries, and through travel research in India and South-East Asia, charts out factors that contribute to making successful spaces for children. Using these factors as core requirement, the design approach involves a back and forth process between psychological, cultural, social, economic and environmental considerations. It strives to be regenerative not just in terms of green building technologies but also in terms of regenerating the social standing of its occupants.

  • Author: Dhara Mehta
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2016

Expanding the Design Space: Forging the Transition from 3D Printing to Additive Manufacturing

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The synergy of Additive Manufacturing and Computational Geometry has the potential to radically expand the design space of solutions available to designers. Additive Manufacturing (AM) is capable of fabricating objects that are highly complex both in geometry and material properties. However, the introduction of any new technology can have a disruptive effect on established design practices and organizations. Before "Design for Additive Manufacturing" (DFAM) can be a commonplace means of producing objects employed in real world products, appropriate design knowledge must be sufficiently integrated within industry. First, materials suited to additive manufacturing methods must be developed to satisfy existing industry standards and specifications, or new standards must be developed. Second, a new class of design representation (CAD) tools will need to be developed. Third, designers and design organizations will need to develop strategies for employing such tools. This thesis describes three DFAM exercises intended to demonstrate the potential for innovative design when using advanced additive materials, tools, and printers. These design exercises included 1) a light-weight composite layup mold developed with topology optimization, 2) a low-pressure fluid duct enhanced with an external lattice structure, and 3) an airline seat tray designed using a non-uniform lattice structure optimized with topology optimization.

  • Author: Matt Amend
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2016

HyparActive: A Design Exploration Tool for Multi-segment HyPar Shells

IASS Annual Symposia

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Shell structures may offer efficient solutions to contemporary design problems, but designer familiarity with them has been in decline. Modern fabrication techniques have rekindled interest, but it is hampered by the difficulty of balancing form manipulation and structural analysis concerns. In this paper we describe HyparActive, a software tool developed specifically to help designers explore shells during conceptual design. HyparActive provides simple 3D form-manipulation tools and visual FEA feedback in the same digital model. The tool allows users to define, manipulate and visualize a parametric form consisting of multiple hyperbolic paraboloid (hypar) shell segments. The quick feedback means the designer can interactively explore how form and stress distributions interact, informing design decisions and enhancing their design “intuition.” This research project investigates the challenges of developing an interactive modeling tool and the benefits of including performance analysis in the conceptual design phase.

  • Authors: Winston Davis, Tyler S. Sprague, Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2016

CODE to MATTER - Integrating Industrial Robotic Arms: Reconciling the Rapid Advancement of Digital Potentials with a Tangible Physical Existence

MArch Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    In the context of digital fabrication in architecture, this thesis is an initial exploration into the use of a 6-axis industrial robotic arm in architectural design. Industrial robots are most commonly known for their use in automation, where the intent is primarily geared towards efficiency and standardization, which neglects the potential for an added value in design. This thesis explores how the symbiotic relationship between the industrial robot arm, human, and material can provide a unique opportunity for design exploration. The driving concepts for this project are three distinct features of an industrial robot: digital environment, mechanical arm, and end effector. It will be argued that the second and third of these features are unique to the robotic arm (and absent from other conventional CNC tools). Of particular interest is how these distinct features can influence the way we make and think about design. An industrial robot will be examined through case studies and literature reviews to help illustrate the versatile potential of such robots in the production of architectural elements and assemblies; proposing a potentially efficient, and highly integrated alternative to accepted norms of design/making as it relates to digital fabrication in the architectural design process.

  • Author: Corey Collier
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2015

Open Tours

MS Thesis Archive

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This thesis describes the development of a 3D web based navigation tool for architecture which combines with a set of camera, animation, and rendering guidelines to facilitate and deliver a more visually consistent spaces and produce higher quality viewing experience for its users. The tool seeks to be a medium between the current products available today which either do not accept user input or provide too many options. The recommended guidelines can assist a designer in selection choices during the complicated conversion of 3d models into renderings for walk through animations, while the web based tool proposes a simplified method to fuse a combination of information for users of architectural spaces in one location.

  • Author: Lily Lao
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2015

GlareShade: a visual comfort-based approach to occupant-centric shading systems

Journal of Building Performance Simulation

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper presents a novel method for designing of an occupant-centric shading algorithm that utilizes visual comfort metric as the form-generating criteria. Based on the premise of previous studies that demonstrate glare as the most important factor for operating shading devices, GlareShade is introduced as a simulation-based shading methodology driven by occupant's visual comfort. GlareShade not only responds to changing outdoor conditions such as the movement of the sun and the variation of cloud cover, but it also accounts for building specific local conditions. GlareShade draws its strength and flexibility from an occupant-centric approach that is based on the visual field of view of each occupant as the occupant is performing common visual tasks in a given environment, and the developed shading system is linked to a distributed sensing network of multiple occupants. ShadeFan is demonstrated as a proof-of-concept dynamic shading system utilizing the GlareShade method.

  • Authors: Alireza Hashemloo, Mehlika Inanici, Chris Meek

2015

Re-Frame: form-finding within the constraints of mutually supporting assemblies

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This research is an investigation into the concept of the reciprocal frame as a means of generating sculptural architectural form within the limits of modular unit design. The development of expressive form involves a balance of various infl uences. One of these is the process of rationalization, where ideas and images are considered as material artifacts that must be built using available resources and technologies. The concept of the reciprocal frame presents an intriguing case for accommodating the limitations of a construction method in the development of form. This thesis explores the range of aesthetic variation available in axially connected reciprocal assemblies by means of experimentation with pattern, physical prototyping, and iterative geometric optimization. The project develops a workflow from form-finding to fabrication within the rigid constraints of this assembly logic, while striving to remain faithful to the tectonic elegance for which this structural concept has historically been valued. Conclusions of this investigation are that the state of axial tangency defi nes a class of reciprocal assembly which, while constrained to a distinct range of form, offers greater scalability and applicability in architectural design.

  • Author: Calder Danz
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2015

Transformable Physical Design Media

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Over the past decades, the WIMP based computer-aided design tools have been redefining the foundation of architectural design. As a materialization process, architectural design- ers are conceiving their mind through the help of computer-aided design tools. But the new emerging technologies are changing the people’s cognition of design activity. The traditional 2D based design representation which operated via tools such as keyboard, mouse as well as monitors are less capable of fully representing physical 3D objects, thus the interaction be- tween designer and design objects through these tools is expecting to be enhanced. We are seeking a brand new design media which could provide a more direct and intuitive interac- tion to help designer inspire and improve their design intent. In this paper, I provide a survey of intuitive and direct (tangible) media and their potential of being applied in design space, define an innovative concept of transformable physical design media which contains sets of user-friendly three dimensional input manipulating tools and physically augmented output representation to optimize the designers’ interaction with design objects within the context of architectural design study as well as human-computer interaction, and describe the practical applications through three research prototypes : 3D pointer, InSpire, and CuBe. These research prototypes explore what kind of tools can be friendly enough for design-ori- ented user with less learning time consumed and what would be the best way for designers to represent design objects. These two elements form the concept of design media which can be combined in a 3D environment to improve design activity with a more intuitive and direct approach. The document argues that the most intuitive tool should incorporate input manipulation through a natural language. The natural language in this context means not only an oral lan- guage, but also means the spontaneous behavior of human beings such as hand gestures. Meanwhile the paper also proposes that there are several approaches to achieve the aug- mented representation as output display to enhance the design experience. I conclude by discussing the observation from application themes for architectural design activity in the domain of HCI and the directions for future work that the transformable physical design media represent a desirable solution for enhancing design experience. Architects and designers could be benefit from the use of transformable physical design media, especially the massing study during the early phase of architectural design which allows the designers can efficiently alter the topology properties and texture setting of the building geometry.

  • Author: Teng Teng
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2015

Hi-Lo: High-Tech Design to enhance Low-Tech execution

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Variation, in the form of patterns in space and time, is fundamental to architecture, but produces complexity in design and construction processes. This complexity is usually managed by constraining variability within a limited palette of choices. By enhancing our ability to manage much more complexity, computers invite greater variation in design. Improved analysis tools enable us to predict performance of complex geometries. Generative algorithms and parametric design tools produce systematic variation. Finally, computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines facilitate the production of variation generated by high-tech performance based generative design tools. But, CNC machines are not globally accessible. At the same time, low-tech production methodologies do offer possibilities for producing variation. This thesis proposes and examines a combination of high-tech performance based generative design tools and low-tech production techniques for use in contexts where CNC machines are not accessible.

  • Author: Siddharth Jadhav
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2015

Transformable Physical Design Media

eCAADe Conference

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Computer-aided design tools have become an integral part of much architectural design practice, to the point where design is heavily dependent on the assistance of these tools. But current computer-aided design tools are fundamentally limited by the WIMP (windows, icons, menus, and pointer) interface, reliant on 2d input and output. Design of buildings and other 3D objects via 2D workflow is slowed by the conversions that designers must make. In this paper, we explore the potential of transformable physical design media through two design tool prototypes: Integrated spatial gesture-based direct 3D modeling and display system (InSpire), and tangible objects based massing study tool kits (CuBe). Both of these design tool prototypes allow designers to develop their design within a fully 3d environment with optical and haptic references, so that the interaction between designer and design object become much more intuitive and direct. We conclude by discussing some related subjects in the domain of HCI and argue that transformable physical design media represent a desirable solution for enhancing design experience. Architects and designers could benefit from the usage of transformable physical design media, especially during the early phases of architectural design by allowing designers to efficiently alter the topology properties.

  • Authors: Teng Teng, Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2015

SiteInSight: Assigning physical computing a role in architectural ideation

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The benefits of a robust architectural site-analysis are well understood through countless examples of built architecture. The tools necessary to achieve such an analysis, much like the site itself, continue to evolve. It is common to find physical computing systems ' systems designed to engage the physical and environmental qualities of our world -- being employed to expose, capture, and store an architectural site's peculiarities in the form of data. However, what is less common is employing this data in real-time, on-site and within a common framework of ideation. This thesis demonstrates a relationship between physical computing and a designer that benefits from real-time data employment. It is a hardware and software platform that assigns physical computing a collaborative role during an initial architectural site visit to not only perform the common task of data collection, but to present it to the designer in a familiar way; a way that might allow for richer data interrogation resulting in a more informed architectural proposition. Ultimately, this thesis exists to demonstrate a way physical computing can be a meaningful participant in architectural ideation.

  • Author: Mitchell Wood
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2015

Evaluating a New Suite of Luminance-Based Design Metrics for Predicting Human Visual Comfort in Offices with Daylight

LEUKOS The Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    A new suite of visual comfort metrics is proposed and evaluated for their ability to explain the variability in subjective human responses in a mock private office environment with daylight. Participants (n = 48) rated visual comfort and preference factors, including 1488 discreet appraisals, and these subjective results were correlated against more than 2000 unique luminance-based metrics that were captured using high dynamic range photography techniques. Importantly, luminance-based metrics were more capable than illuminance-based metrics for fitting the range of human subjective responses to data from visual preference questionnaire items. No metrics based upon the entire scene ranked in the top 20 squared correlation coefficients, nor did any based upon illuminance or irradiance data, nor did any of the studied glare indices, luminance ratios, or contrast ratios. The standard deviation of window luminance was the metric that best fit human subjective responses to visual preference on seven of 12 questionnaire items (with r2 = 0.43). Luminance metrics calculated using the horizontal 40° band (a scene-independent mask) and the window area (a scene-dependent mask) represented the majority of the top 20 squared correlation coefficients for almost all subjective visual preference questionnaire items. The strongest multiple regression model was for the semantic differential rating (too dim or too bright) of the window wall (adjR2 = 0.49) and was built upon three variables; standard deviation of window luminance, the 50th percentile luminance value from the lower view window, and mean luminance of the 40° horizontal band.

  • Authors: Kevin Van Den Wymelenberg, Mehlika Inanici
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2015

The Space Between Research and Practice: A Critical Evaluation of Computer-Based Lighting Metrics

MS Thesis Archive

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This thesis identifies and explores computer-based lighting metrics, assessing their effectiveness in evaluating the quality and quantity of daylight to bridge the space between research and practice. Ultimately, this thesis will demonstrate why using singular metrics is not as effective as using several, complementary metrics in expressing the luminous environment. There are many challenges in practice and research- respectively, time or capabilities of a design team and lack of transparency or unrealistic metric criteria. Moreover, each metric- illuminance and luminance, point-in-time and annual- addresses different luminous qualities. It is critical to understand the nuances, as the results and corresponding design recommendations are highly dependent on the metrics used, and each metric carries technical inadequacies and limitations. Aiming to study these challenges and critique the current landscape of computational lighting design, the objectives of this thesis are to: 1) Evaluate computational lighting metrics for their ability to provide an understanding of the luminous environment, and 2) Investigate the capabilities, assumptions, and methods used in computational lighting metrics as they are developed in the research community and used in practice. These objectives are examined with exploratory vignettes. The vignettes elucidate each metric's strengths, limitations, and assumptions in a clearer, holistic way so that consultants within the field will be more knowledgeable. The outcome is a compendium of information and guidelines to help designers make informed decisions as they relate to selecting appropriate daylight metrics

  • Author: Nicole Peterson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2014

low-tech.high-touch: DNA Brick Assembly

MS Thesis Archive

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Brick is a low-cost, low-tech building material and is abundant in highly-populated areas of the world. The simple, symmetric form of bricks allows for complex unit-to-unit connections that can create a variety of different forms, patterns, and openings in a brick wall. Building unique forms and patterns with bricks, however, relies upon highly-skilled masons and the design process can be challenging for the architect. This thesis proposes the use of algorithmic computational 3d modeling software and low-tech brick masonry techniques to create a tool that allows the users to design brick masonry walls in a digital world. This process lets the designer simultaneously study different design factors including form, pattern, and solar exposure and also allows the designer to communicate the result with the mason using simple paper guides called 'DNA guide'. The DNA guide instructs the mason on the assembly of the complex brick systems. Rather than solely relying on high-tech tools, this approach builds upon existing low-tech methods for greater global implementation at smaller costs. The design tool connects high-tech computational methods with traditional brick masonry practices to create a 'high-touch', more responsive process. As part of this thesis, a full scale prototype was designed and constructed. The sculptural brick screen acts as a transitional element for a building and responds to environmental and seasonal changes by controlling light, air and views.

  • Author: Yasaman Esmaili
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2014

One BIM to Rule Them All: Future reality or myth?

Building Information Modeling: BIM in Current and Future Practice

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Chapter 13 of a 26 chapter edited compilation of provocative essays providing a forum for these leadership voices in the marketplace of ideas about building information modeling in architecture. They provide clarity and direction for thinking about the current practice and the future directions of BIM, instigating commentary by foremost thinkers about both research about BIM and speculation into the future of BIM. The 26 chapters are grouped together thematically in six sections that present both complementary and sometimes incompatible positions: Design Thinking and BIM, BIM Analytics, Comprehensive BIM, Reasoning with BIM, Professional BIM, and BIM Speculations.

  • Author: Brian R Johnson

2014

Guerrilla Productivity: Gamification and Design-Related Touch Interfaces

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    In recent years, applications for touch screen devices have experienced tremendous growth and distribution. While some of the most widely-adopted applications offer game-based drawing experiences, tools designed specifically for digital drawing and sketching have experienced only modest popularity. Drawing games (and 'gamified' experiences) have the ability to captivate users in ways that productivity-focused applications and tools cannot. This thesis describes a history of touch interfaces for designers, including a more thorough analysis of a few contemporary examples. It then identifies strengths and weaknesses in current drawing applications, core principles to abide by when creating new applications, as well as unfulfilled market opportunities. Ultimately, these findings inform the development of a prototype application that serves to demonstrate how principles of gamification and play might be leveraged for a sort of guerrilla productivity—user experiences that possess dual-citizenship within the realms of work and play. [At the student's request, full text of this document did not become available until 2019.]

  • Author: Peter Schiller
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2014

Reciprocal Frames, Nexorades and Lamellae

DMG White Papers

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper presents an overview of the current body of literature available on reciprocal frame structures, the history of the RF as an architectural typology, and a discussion of the links and disconnects between research and practice in this area. This information is synthesized by organizing the different morphologies observed into a set of heirarchical lineages or 'phylogenies' based on their historical context and the technological requirements for their rationalization processes.

  • Author: Calder Danz
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2014

InSpire: Integrated spatial gesture-based direct 3D modeling and display

ACADIA Proceedings

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    In this paper we introduce InSpire, an interactive 3D modeling system combining an optical see-through 'holo-display' and video-based motion sensing and head tracking to co-locate 3D model display and user gestures. Users can directly create, edit, and manipulate digital geometry, taking a step towards an intuitive gesture modeling environment that liberates designers' hands from the limitation of 2D mouse input and monitor output and inspire designer's ideas. In this paper, we describe our goals, the concepts and implementation behind the prototype, on both the software and hardware side. In addition, we present several use-case examples that explore potential applications. Finally, based on initial user responses to the prototype, some future development directions are discussed.

  • Authors: Teng Teng, Brian R Johnson

2014

GlareShade: a visual comfort based approach to adaptive shading systems

MArch Thesis Archive

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The thesis investigates design solutions for an adaptive shading system in high-rise office buildings. High density of occupants, variation in comfort levels corresponding with different activity types and individuals' preferences, diverse occupation schedules and maximized exposure to outside environment relative to construction footprint exemplify the complexities associated with daylight control strategies in high-rise office buildings. Precedent daylight control strategies fail to address the glare issue and relative complexities associated with variation of criteria for occupants' comfort. The thesis proposes a new method to evaluate glare issue relative to an individuals' viewpoint and identifies the problematic region(s) on corresponding glazing surface(s) that can be addressed with an adaptive shading system.

  • Author: Alireza Hashemloo
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2013

hdrscope: High Dynamic Range Image Processing Toolkit for Lighting Simulations and Analysis

Proceedings of International Building Performance Simulation Association Conference

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper describes the development of a new tool called hdrscope that enables users to perform qualitative and quantitative lighting analysis via per- pixel methods. Using a simulated and photographically captured lab space as a case study, per-pixel analysis methods are described, challenges associated with per-pixel lighting analysis are discussed, and hdrscope analysis techniques are demonstrated. hdrscope is intended to lower the entry barrier for lighting professionals, and to facilitate the utilization of lighting analysis in early design and development stages as well as post occupancy. It also provides a user friendly tool for lighting experts while filling in the gaps among the current lighting analysis tools.

  • Authors: Viswanathan Kumaragurubaran, Mehlika Inanici
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2013

Material Logic

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The practice of architecture requires that materials be considered throughout the design process. Considerations range in complexity from aesthetic decisions, to those dependent upon physical properties. Although materials are integral to the design process, 3D modeling programs are limited in their ability to address the complexities of materials. Instead, their utility lies in the description of geometry, while relying upon the user's experience to inform material considerations. This places architects in the challenging position of designing physical artifacts, while working in an environment that permits the creation of geometry that may lack an analogue in the physical world. This thesis seeks to expand the potential of 3D modeling through the incorporation of material information. Material Logic is an online database tool that facilitates the construction of material aware models in Grasshopper, a plug-in for Rhinoceros. Through this tool, material information can be saved, and then assembled into custom material components for download, providing drag and drop access to shared material information for the digital design environment.

  • Author: Amanda Bruot
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2013

Visualizing identity: Perspectives on the influences of digital representation in architectural practice and education

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Being an architect today is not the same as it was twenty years ago. The discipline of architecture continues to be influenced by the use of technology, specifically digital representation, which in this study refers to the use of software to create virtual three dimensional models. Digital representation continues to grow in use in both the profession and in architectural education as the demand for realistic visualization increases. In this changing context, new students and seasoned professionals in architecture find that the identity of an architect has evolved over time to include skills in technology, in addition to the foundational skills based in design thinking. Firms seek talented graduates, students seek the right balance of learning, and educators attempt to bridge the expectations between education and practice. When students learn to be architects, how can technology be integrated with foundational learning to align with professional expectations? In order to move beyond the previous studies that typically focus on student artifacts as proof of successful technology integration, the framework for analysis of this research is based in sociocultural learning, with a focus on situative motivational theory. The influence of social context on student learning and ongoing practice is a compelling perspective from which to understand the reasons for change. The communities of professional practice and education exercise influence on each other, and the individual members construct their communities through activity and engagement with each other. Digital representation in professional practice is examined for its influence on student motivations and identity formation in preparation for practice. Supplemental Materials include interview transcripts, interview summaries, and classroom observation transcripts.

  • Author: Lillian Hancock
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2013

Dynamic Shading: An Analysis

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Efficient use of energy is vital. Electric lighting contributes to a significant part of the total energy use in the US. Efficient use of daylighting offers a significant reduction in overall energy use. However, because the light available changes dynamically; the design of static shading systems adhering to both high and low levels of light is difficult. This thesis explores dynamic shading systems and analyses the benefits of an adaptive system when compared to a static system. The main goal of the thesis is to analyze a dynamic shading system in different conditions and compare it with a static system; in order to establish the advantages and disadvantages both quantitatively and qualitatively in terms of daylighting. Unfortunately, most of the daylighting metrics are not developed with a dynamic system in mind. So the thesis will also look to utilize a metric which takes account of the dynamism. The analysis process developed in this research involves building a series of simulation models in Ecotect. Each model represents one physical configuration of the system. Using Radiance and DaySim, Annual Illuminance Profiles are computed consisting of 'snapshot' simulations at hourly intervals for a specific city. Custom software written in Java for individual static positions processes these profiles and computes the metrics adopted. Further, an hypothesized Dynamic system is computed by combining the individual static positions. Finally, the behavior and benefits of the Dynamic system is evaluated by comparing the Static and Dynamic system results for different latitudes.

  • Author: Siva Ram Edupuganti
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2013

The Dark Side of Affordances?

Department of Architecture Blog

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The term "affordances" generally is used as a positive by HCI researchers. In this essay an argument is advanced that software interfaces may "seduce" use as well as "enable" it, distracting users from the real issues before them.

  • Author: Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2013

The Y Model: Simultaneous Instruction in Digital Fabrication and Representation

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Digital media and tools are now integral to architectural education and the design process. Nevertheless, much of the pedagogy related to digital media is grounded in, and relies upon, traditional design educational approaches. The relationship of the practice of architecture to digital technology is in constant flux. Recently, university departments of architecture have seen a greater emphasis on technology integration, and have witnessed significant upgrades in hardware and software technologies. These shifts in technologies 'have game changing implications for the future of the profession' (Design Intelligence, 2013). Changes in architecture curricula to accommodate new design technologies and modes of professional practice, as well as students' time and skill limitations, make it challenging for departments of architecture to provide their students with the knowledge base necessary to address the concerns of design professionals as they move from the academic environment into professional practice. Bearing in mind the following three points: 1. It is not possible to teach the students everything they need to learn (in terms of either design or technology) while they are in school. 2. Students enter departments of architecture generally having achieved a high level of computer literacy that they assume they will be able to apply or build upon in their education (Design Intelligence, 2013) 3. Because of financial constraints, differences in geography, faculty, facilities, academic modus operandi, and whether the institution is private or public, every department of architecture has a different curriculum (Design Intelligence, 2013). We can pose the following question: In the context of design education, what should an introductory course in design computing accomplish in terms of topics, tasks, and theory? To which we may answer: Literature states that, at the end of an introductory design computing course: 1. Educators and practitioners in architecture believe students should have the ability to face and adapt to changing technology. They need to learn how to learn technology (software and hardware) in order to become competent practitioners of architecture. 2. Students should be exposed to fundamental design computing concepts that will be useful now and into the future. An introductory course should address fundamental principles and approaches to technology and design that we hypothesize will persist despite rapid changes. 3. Students should have the ability to generate and communicate ideas utilizing multiple processes (approaches) and media. 4. Students should understand, perceive, and be able to act upon existing affordances of digital tools. This thesis examines teaching methods, curricula, and pedagogical approaches that assist in achieving those goals; it reviews literature regarding the need for a course addressing the abovementioned concerns, and it summarizes case studies that have attempted to address these needs. The central effort of the thesis involves an exploration, in the form of a course, in which the author attempted to address the needs described above, via the utilization of a learning theory approach known as the 'Y' model. This model proposes the acquisition and buildup of a logical progression of skills and knowledge as a foundation for students to pursue further, similar, yet possibly divergent outcomes.

  • Author: Roark Congdon
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2013

Dynamic Daylighting Simulations from Static High Dynamic Range Imagery Using Extrapolation and Daylight Coefficient Methodologies

IBPSA

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper describes the development of a technique for extrapolation of dynamic daylighting simulations from a limited number of high dynamic range photographs. This technique allows us to photographically capture and measure per-pixel lighting quantities from existing spaces in a limited time frame; and the measured information is used to establish a statistics based daylight coefficient model for the studied scene. It negates the need to explicitly model the geometry, material and lighting properties in existing environments, as they would be required in a typical simulation and daylight coefficient computation. Statistics based daylight coefficients can be used to perform daylighting simulations under any generic, arbitrary or physically occurring sky conditions.

  • Author: Mehlika Inanici
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2013

Arcosanti - a prototype arcology

ArchBE blog

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This blog post described the author's experience working and studying at the Arcosanti project site in Arizona. (This document was recreated from the text and images used in the original blog post.)

  • Author: Yasaman Esmaili
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2012

[M]form: Symbiotic Design and Manufacturing for Casting of Modular Systems

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Interposing idea space and the physicality of body space lays a space of potentialities where design intent and the physical constraints of making come into dynamic relationship. This space can be thought of as the solution space where complex representations of form interact with materiality, manufacturing techniques, and assembly logic. It is in this solution space and the transfer of information from the digital realm to the physical one where intent can be lost due to the lack of a systematic approach. Mechatronic forming, referred to here as [m]form, is associated with physical surfaces that are reconfigurable based on digital information. In this context, [m]form is an additive casting machine that compliments the contemporary disposition of architectural design and manufacturing as one symbiotic process the purpose of which is the production of pre-cast modular systems. It seeks to expand this solution space by advancing design toward a bottom-up process that is driven by design intent as much as it is the tangible issues relevant to the production of variable form. Specifically the focus of this thesis is an alternative to cast manufacturing tailored to generative design methodologies and the inherent issues associated with manufacturing variably shaped modules.

  • Author: Hunter Ruthrauff
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2012

B-Shelves: A Web Based Mass Customized Product

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    B-Shelves (Box-Shelves) explores the relationship between design intent, generative design, mass customization and digital fabrication. B-Shelves is a mass custom furniture product that is customized through a web based system. The project looks at generative design as an enabler for different design and manufacturing processes and different designer/consumer relationships. A process of mass customization, as described by the B-Shelves thesis, is able to support consumers who are interested in customizing a design through a guided process. The design-to-manufacture process of many customizers (the consumers) to many products has shifted the traditional role of the architect. In this case, the architect must consider the design of multiple end products and focus on a framework that is able to generate both explored designs as well as numerous other customized versions. The B-Shelves project explores three parts of this mass custom process: how form is generated (including codifying the architect's knowledge base in a parametric framework), how form is customized (using an interactive web interface), and how numerous unique forms are fabricated (using efficiencies of mass production). Each part of the file-to-factory process is discussed in depth, as is the construction of a built prototype.

  • Author: Lauren Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2012

Simulation of Dynamic Daylighting and Glare Control Systems for a Six-Story Net-Zero Energy Office Building in Seattle, WA

Building Enclosure Science and Technology (BEST) Conference

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    As building owners and designers focus on meeting net-zero energy use, the realization of lighting power savings and a high-quality visual environment through the use of daylight becomes critical. Central to this effort is maintaining persistent visual comfort while meeting illuminance targets across variable sun angles and sky conditions. For these reasons, weather station controlled dynamic daylighting and glare control systems may provide the most persistent daylight performance in spaces where direct sunlight is present during large portions of the occupied times. Dynamic facade systems have the possibility of maintaining visual comfort while achieving maximum diffuse daylight performance over time. These systems also offer the possibility of being deployed when needed and retracting or reverting to a state of maximum visible light transmittance without user intervention when glare or unwanted direct sunlight is no longer present. This paper presents simulation and analysis conducted by the University of Washington Integrated Design Lab (UW IDL) of short time-step luminance and illuminance performance of automated dynamic daylighting systems including an exterior venetian blind system and a variable transmittance electrochromic glazing system deployed in a planned net-zero office building in Seattle, WA.

  • Authors: Amanda Bruot, Chris Meek, Louie Caldwell

2012

High Dynamic Range Image Processing Toolkit for Lighting Simulations and Analysis

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Architects need analytical tools to evaluate the performance of their designs. Although a wide spectrum of evaluative tools is available, there is a general lack of designer friendly approaches. Architectural lighting analysis tools currently used in the profession incorporate several useful features, but most of them require specialized knowledge of scripting, and they lack intuitive and interactive user interfaces. The nature of these tools and data obtained are fragmented in nature. The objective of this thesis is to develop a user friendly tool (hdrscope) that can process and analyze High Dynamic Range (HDR) photographs and simulation results from Radiance Lighting Simulation and Visualization software. This new software (hdrscope) helps lighting designers, architects, researchers and academics to perform automated HDR image capture, HDR image processing, statistical analysis, glare evaluation and visualization of the lighting distributions in the space. The aim of hdrscope is to make architectural lighting analysis accessible by enabling wider usage for both entry level users as well as experts.

  • Author: Viswanathan Kumaragurubaran
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2012

Simulating Visual Comfort and Energy Performance of Organic Energy Harvesting Electrochromic Windows (EH-ECWs) in Mid-Size Commercial Office Buildings

ACSA Conference

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    An interdisciplinary research group including faculty from the College of Engineering and the College of Built Environments at the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle is developing a new generation of organic energy harvesting electrochromic windows (EH-ECWs) based on recently developed organic conjugated polymers and switchable dye technology. EH-ECWs offer the potential for substantial energy saving and increased visual comfort in buildings. This paper describes work undertaken by the Department of Architecture to simulate the potential performance of EH-ECWs and to begin to develop optimum deployment strategies of EH-ECWs in existing and new commercial office buildings. This includes simulation using a code compliant Department of Energy (DOE) reference model and "high-performance" building model with EH-ECW window technology in four climate zones, across the following parameters: net site energy consumption, thermal performance, and the on-site power generation potential of energy-harvesting organic photovoltaics. A pilot assessment of visual comfort using a contemporary net-zero commercial office building design as a test case was also conducted.

  • Authors: Amanda Bruot, Chris Meek

2012

Game Mods: Design, Theory and Criticism

ETC Press

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Are games worthy of academic attention? Can they be used effectively in the classroom, in the research laboratory, as an innovative design tool, as a persuasive political weapon? Game Mods: Design, Theory and Criticism aims to answer these and more questions. It features chapters by authors chosen from around the world, representing fields as diverse as architecture, ethnography, puppetry, cultural studies, music education, interaction design and industrial design. How can we design, play with and reflect on the contribution of game mods, related tools and techniques, to both game studies and to society as a whole? Chapter 4 was written by MS.dc graduate Kevin Conway.

  • Author: Kevin Conway
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2012

Finding Place: Discovering What Everyone Already Knows

DMG Practicum Whitepaper

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Traditional and currently evolving methods employed by designers to access the personal experience and knowledge of community members to facilitate public participation in project planning are often difficult and ineffective. In light of the growing use of technology to augment traditional processes of facilitating participation through primary sources, emerging methods utilizing secondary sources for gathering local knowledge, such as social media, are reviewed. Based on the promising evolution of knowledge interpretation through aggregated data streams created by social media, we propose new methods of accessing local knowledge through the use of web-based applications that will allow users to filter multiple unrelated data streams for personal interpretation and relevance to their specific projects, supplementing traditional methods of gathering local community knowledge.

  • Authors: Lillian Hancock, Mitchell Wood
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2011

The Kinect Grasshopper Multi-touch Interface

DMG Whitepaper

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This document explains the organization, algorithms and work flow of the Kinect + Grasshopper touch interface using the Kinect for Windows PC SDK. This work was developed over the summer of 2011 in an internship with LMN Architects.

  • Author: Viswanathan Kumaragurubaran
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2011

Combined Digital & Physical Modeling with Vision-Based Tangible User Interfaces: Opportunities and Challenges

CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Designers in architectural studios, both in education and practice, have worked to integrate digital and physical media ever since they began to utilize digital tools in the design process [1]. There are benefits of working in the digital domain as well as benefits of working physically; confronting, or seeming to confront, architects with a difficult choice. Emerging strategies for human-computer interaction such as tangible user interfaces and computer vision techniques present new possibilities for manipulating architectural designs. These technologies can help bridge between the digital and physical worlds. In this paper we discuss some of these technologies, analyze several current design challenges and present a prototype that illustrates ways in which a broader approach to human computer interaction might resolve the problems. The ultimate goal of breaking down the boundary between the digital and physical design platforms is to create a unified domain of "continuous thought" for all design activities.

  • Authors: Chih-Pin Hsiao, Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2011

Game Engines for Architectural Visualization in Design

MS Thesis Archive

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This thesis explores a method of architectural visualization based on game engines, the software modules within video games that control and manage the rendering, texturing, physics, networking, artifi cial intelligence and all the other functional aspects of a video game. Through an examination of the components of a game engine, this thesis shows how a game engine can serve as a basis for an improved approach to architectural visualization and presentation.

  • Author: Kevin Conway
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2011

Form Finding, Force and Function: Mass-Spring Simulation for a Thin Shell Concrete Trolley Barn

DMG MArch Thesis Archive

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Simulation, traditionally used as an evaluative tool, can also be part of a design's generation. Using a waterfront trolley barn as a test case this project examines digital physics simulation as a shell form finding tool. The development of a form finding method using open source tools will be discussed, and the implications of this workflow for design will be critically evaluated.

  • Author: Mike Weller
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2011

Development Simulator

DMG Presentations

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This web-based presentation describes a collaborative urban design project for early design development. The files in this web archive were originally created in 2001 and may include links to content that no longer exists.

  • Author: Doddy Samiaji
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2011

TiMBA: Tangible User Interface for Model Building and Analysis

HCI International

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Designers in architectural studios, both in education and practice, have worked to integrate digital and physical media ever since they began to utilize digital tools in the design process [1]. Throughout the design process there are significant benefits of working in the digital domain as well as benefits of working physically; confronting architects with a difficult choice. We believe emerging strategies for human-computer interaction such as tangible user interfaces and computer vision techniques present new possibilities for manipulating architectural designs. These technologies can help bridge between the digital and physical worlds. In this paper, we discuss some of these technologies, analyzes several current design challenges and present a prototype that illustrates ways in which a broader approach to human-computer interaction might resolve the problem. The ultimate goal of breaking down the boundary between the digital and physical design platforms is to create a unified domain of "continuous thought" for all design activities.

  • Authors: Chih-Pin Hsiao, Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2011

Interlattice

International PUARL Conference

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    InterLattice is a three-dimensional fastener-free joinery system composed solely of interlocking flat pieces. The InterLattice system is made up of vertically oriented triangular modules that connect to each other in a manner inspired by conventional brick and mortar construction. Connection gaps between the triangular modules act as flexible joints, connecting the modules together while allowing for a wide range of angles between adjacent modules. With the InterLattice, double curvature in form is possible without the typical need for tiling or major alteration of module geometry. This enables material sheets to be nested and CNC cut simply and efficiently; tabs and slots are unique to their position, but the overall size of pieces remains consistent. The parametric model of InterLattice allows for control of lattice geometry and automatically updates connection conditions, paying attention to patterns and constraints within the design. Through this modeling process, CNC-ready InterLattice designs are simultaneously generated and visualized. InterLattice systems are highly flexible and have many potential applications including interior walls, self-supporting awnings, and as a part of weatherproofed exterior structures.

  • Author: Lauren Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2010

Interactive Modeling of Luminaires for Lighting Simulation

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    It is desirable to accurately predict the lighting of architectural objects and spaces for both architectural and engineering reasons. Using the advanced lighting simulation tool Radiance to create physically-based rendering of simulated spaces is one approach to visually and numerically predicting lighting. Architectural lighting comes from two basic sources: skies and luminaires. Radiance includes sky modeling tools and more are available from various research sources. Radiance luminaire modeling tools, however, are error-prone, requiring the writing of text files, manual calculations, and repeated test renderings. To improve this situation, LumBuild, a cross-platform graphical tool for generating Radiance luminaire models, was developed. LumBuild provides graphical methods for combining luminaire geometry and photometry, generating Radiance impostor surfaces, and binding Radiance material descriptions to geometry. LumBuild maintains a small database of Radiance luminaire models and provides simulation tools for testing the generated luminaire models. The applications of LumBuild are demonstrated through architectural examples: three luminaires are modeled and simulated in test spaces. Renderings and numerical summaries of the results are discussed.

  • Author: Randolph Fritz
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2010

A Breathing Building Skin

ACADIA Conference


2010

Analyzing a Process of Collaborative Game Design Involving Online Tools

Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing (VL/HCC)

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    (in press)

  • Authors: Sandra B. Fan, Brian R Johnson, Yun-En Liu, Tyler S. Robison, Rolfe R. Schmidt, Steven L. Tanimoto

2010

A Breathing Building Skin: Designing with the Concepts of Biological Adaptation

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This thesis is an initial exploration into the development of a breathing building skin. The design of current mechanical systems is questioned in response to alternative means of heating and cooling buildings as well as recent changes to building standards which require passive ventilation strategies to be supplemented by some form of mechanical ventilation. This research thesis proposes a system of diaphragms as an alternative to the use of fans for distributing volumes of air. The driving concepts for this project are the three types of biological adaptation; flexibility, acclimation, and learning. Of particular interest is how these biological concepts relate to architectural design and design computing. Parametric modeling was used throughout the project to study a family of folding geometry. This allowed for the iterative development of a diaphragm, fabricated from sheet material, that is capable of being actuated with a relatively small degree of movement in comparison to the scale of the overall piece. This research is significant as it puts forth a potentially energy efficient, and highly integrated alternative to fans while also illustrating a way of relating biological concepts of adaptation to architectural design.

  • Author: Scott Crawford
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2010

Architectural Model Building

Farchild Publications

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    A thorough treatment of physical model making procedures using a variety of media, by one of our MS students.

  • Author: Roark Congdon

2010

Fabricating Architecture: Selected Readings in Digital Design and Manufacturing

Princeton Architectural Press

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    For years contemporary architects have been inundated with hype about the radical changes expected as a result of technological innovation and the proliferation of new digital tools and techniques. Though architects acknowledge that advances in computing are having a profound impact on architecture, the nature of that impact remains a subject of ongoing debate. Many noteworthy books are available that document the growing field of digital design and manufacturing, but few of these books address the truly broad range of issues that grow out of these emerging technological innovations. Fabricating Architecture gathers together for the first time twelve key essays by important critics, theorists, and architects, such as Martin Bechthold, Achim Menges, Kiel Moe, and Amanda Reeser Lawrence. Editor Robert Corser's concise analysis of each essay guides readers through the lively debate surrounding this topic.

  • Author: Rob Corser

2009

Depth Perception in Real and Pictorial Spaces: A Computational Framework to Represent and Simulate the Built Environment

CAADRIA

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Architectural design is often mediated on two-dimensional representation systems and envisioned three-dimensionally in the pictorial space. The developments of advanced digital technologies have enabled us to create the pictorial representations of un-built design projects that can appear as real as photographs. The visually appealing pictures produced by photorealistic rendering tools are useful for visualizing the form and the spatial layout of the proposed architectural design; but they may be inadequate and misleading for simulating the perceptual qualities of space. This paper draws from the recent developments in computer graphics (physically based renderings and perceptually based tone mapping techniques) and proposes a computational framework to faithfully represent and simulate pictorial spaces. Guidelines are provided for generating images with appropriate representation and simulation techniques so that architects can make informed design decisions about the perceptual qualities of their designs and researchers can study depth perception in computer environments.

  • Authors: Nan-Ching Tai, Mehlika Inanici
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2009

Applications of Image based Rendering in Lighting Simulation: Development and Evaluation of Image based Sky Models

Proceedings of the International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA) Conference

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper demonstrates the use of High Dynamic Range (HDR) fisheye images of the sky dome in lighting simulations. The objective is to improve the accuracy of simulations with site specific sky conditions. The luminance information stored at a pixel level in an HDR photograph is used to light the simulated environment through an Image Based Rendering (IBR) technique. The results show that image based sky models can provide a more accurate and efficient method for defining the sky luminance distributions and the impact of surrounding urban fabric and vegetation as compared to generic CIE sky models and explicit modeling of surrounding urban fabric and forestry.

  • Author: Mehlika Inanici
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2009

Gizmo & Wiiview: Tangible User Interfaces Enabling Architectural Presentations

ACADIA 2009

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Widespread use by 3D designers of simple digital modeling applications such as Google's SketchUp may displace the use of physical models in design. However, the difficulties often faced by non-experts in the ad hoc navigation of digital models during design reviews have not been eliminated. Keyboards and mice are clumsy navigational devices and difficult to share in a collaborative setting. This work explores the combination of new, inexpensive interface hardware technologies with a popular 3D modeler in order to create a viable surrogate for physical models. Two architectural model navigation and presentation interfaces were developed, one based on an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) circuit board ('Gizmo'), and one that used a Wii Remote Controller ('WiiView'). Both were interfaced with the popular architectural modeling program SketchUp. Anecdotal responses and preliminary user testing results are presented.

  • Authors: Randolph Fritz, Chih-Pin Hsiao, Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2009

Gimme Shelter Exhibit

Competition Entry Schuylkill Center for Environmental Art

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The project, in its early form, is a finalist in the Gimme Shelter competition sponsored by the Schuylkill Center for Environmental Art and will be on display at AIA Philadelphia for the month of February.

  • Authors: Rob Corser, Scott Crawford
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2009

Vision-based Tangible User Interfaces for Architecture

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Emerging strategies for human-computer interaction such as Tangible User Interfaces and Computer Vision techniques present new possibilities for manipulating architectural designs. These technologies can help bridge between the digital and physical worlds. This thesis discusses these new technologies, analyzes several current design challenges and presents two prototype software systems which illustrate ways in which a broader approach to human-computer interaction can (a) enhance the design navigation experience and (b) simplify the model production problem. The ultimate goal of breaking down the boundary between the digital and physical design platforms is to create a unified domain of "continuous thought" for all design activities. This thesis also presents the current challenges of using these technologies and suggests several future possibilities.

  • Author: Chih-Pin Hsiao
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2009

An Architecture of Relationships Built on the Use of Parametric Modeling and Evaluative Analysis in Design

DMG MArch Thesis Archive

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Design exploration of an elementary school through parametric modeling using the Grasshopper plugin to Rhino.

  • Author: Scott Crawford
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2008

Augmented Reality, Architecture and Ubiquity: Technologies, Theories and Frontiers

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    An exploration of the intersection of Human Interfaces, Architecture and Ubiquitous Computing, this thesis proposes that Augmented Reality is a pivotal technology for a rich and transparent design practice. The theoretical, technical, and design implications of emerging mixed reality interfaces are presented in detail. A number of prototyped systems are explored. MxR -- "a design tool for collaboration, form generation, simulation and visualization" is presented. Certain challenges and future directions of the technology are drawn in detail and discussed.

  • Author: Daniel Belcher
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2008

JITC3: Just-In-Time Augmented Reality Command and Control System for Emergency Response

Urban Mixed Realities: Technologies, Theories and Frontiers, Proceedings of the 26th Annual ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2008), Florence, Italy.

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The Just-In-Time Command and Control Center (JITC3) is an Augmented Reality (AR) and mobile computing based system for improving Situational Awareness during urban emergency response operations. The JITC3 system integrates both synchronous and asynchronous location-specific information updates from field responders carrying GPS-enabled SmartPhones, allowing the JITC3 AR equipped coordinator to view and manipulate relevant information in a coherent urban and geospatial workspace augmented by images, audio and text.

  • Authors: Daniel Belcher, Xianhang Zhang, Anirudhan Vijayakanthan, Tom Furness

2008

Image Based Rendering: Using High Dynamic Range Photographs to Light Architectural Scenes

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Image Based Rendering (IBR) is a digital rendering technique that uses High Dynamic Range (HDR) photographs to light three‐dimensional digital models. The HDR photographs capture lighting data and images from a physical environment: this is done by shooting a range of exposures with a digital camera and tripod. Once these exposures have been combined into a single HDR photograph using computer software, the resultant photograph can be inserted into a digital model, using the IBR method, to act as the light source and background image for the model. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the IBR method: i) to identify its strengths and weaknesses, ii) to investigate the prescribed method, and iii) to explore its uses as a render and analysis tool for the architectural and lighting design communities. The rationale and methodology are discussed and pertinent information for architectural applications are provided through different settings and lighting conditions.

  • Author: Kathleen Cheney
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2008

MxR: A Physical Model-Based Mixed Reality Interface for Design Collaboration, Simulation, Visualization and Form Generation

ACADIA Conference Proceedings

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    MxR - pronounced 'mixer' - is a Mixed/Augmented Reality system intended to support collaboration during early phases of architectural design. MxR allows an interdisciplinary group of practitioners and stakeholders to gather around a table, discuss and test different hypotheses, visualize results, simulate different physical systems, and generate simple forms. MxR is also a test-bed for collaborative interactions and demonstrates different configuration potentials, from exploration of individual alternatives to group discussion around a physical model. As a MR-VR transitional interface, MxR allows for movement along the reality-virtuality continuum, while employing a simple tangible user-interface and a MagicLens interaction technique.

  • Authors: Daniel Belcher, Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2008

Image Based Rendering: Using High Dynamic Range Photographs to Light Architectural Scenes

[Architecture] in the age of [Digital] Reproduction

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Image Based Rendering is a digital rendering technique that uses High Dynamic Range photographs captured from a physical environment to light three-dimensional digital models. These renderings are useful for representation and design evaluation purposes. The paper discusses the rationale, advantages, and the methodology of the technique; and architectural applications are exemplified through different settings and lighting conditions.

  • Authors: Kathleen Cheney, Mehlika Inanici
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2008

ARchitectureView: An Augmented Reality Interface for Viewing 3D Building Information Models An Augmented Reality Interface for Viewing 3D Building Information Models

eCAADe Conference Proceedings

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    We present a system for viewing architectural building models — specifically Building Information Modeling (BIM) models — in 3D using an Augmented Reality Tangible User Interface (TUI) and a Magic Lens interaction metaphor. ARchitectureView is meant to facilitate communication and collaboration around a shared model. We present the system overview and a number of use scenarios in which the interface would serve to improve communication across disciplines and varied technical backgrounds, while supporting a rich and coherent common understanding. Keywords: Augmented Reality; Building Information Modeling; Magic Lens; Tangible User Interface

  • Authors: Daniel Belcher, Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2007

Computational Approach for Determining the Directionality of Light: Directional to Diffuse Ratio

Proceedings of the International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA) 2007 Conference

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The directionality of light is defined as the balance between the diffuse and directional components of light within an environment. It is an indicator about the spatial distribution of light flow onto an element or into a space. This paper presents a new luminance based metric that quantifies the directionality of light. The diffuse and directional components of the luminous environment are isolated as a unique feature of simulation-based approach. The rationale and methodology of the directional-to-diffuse ratio is discussed through visual demonstrations and quantified metrics.

  • Author: Mehlika Inanici
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2007

Empowering Reviewers in Digital Presentations: Mediating between physical and digital realms

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This MS thesis examines the challenge of making effective architectural presentations with digital projector technology and presents a prototype application for enhanced audience (reviewer) participation. The following is taken from her abstract: With the growing use of digital technologies in both architecture practice and education, reviewers and clients face challenges with communication and representation. I am interested in one of these challenges: how to engage reviewers in the unfamiliar world of digital presentations? Current digital design presentations change the traditional structure and organization, providing few benefits for audience and review members. How can digital presentations be more satisfying? By providing reviewers a level of control over the digital presentation, I have created an environment where digital presentations have similar affordances to traditional presentations.

  • Author: Susan Locsin
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2007

DVIN (Dual-view Building Information Navigation Interface)

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Architecture design is a complex action related to creation and arrangement of space and function. This action contains much complex building information which is difficult to document within 1 or 2 pages and this information usually accompanies the whole lifecycle of the building. Architects usually document their design via two-dimensional drawings such as plan, section and elevation, and use text labels within the drawings to help themselves or clients identify different information. Although most building information has been determined and documented during design, this information is rarely used after the construction process finished. In addition, during the design process, designers often use verbal-interaction or graphic metaphors when they communicate with partners. Only sophisticated person could have capability to draw or read these documents. Indeed, these metaphors of design documents seems to serve a memory encoding function for the designer , helping to store rationale , purpose , and knowledge for later retrieval. Sometimes even an architect could misunderstand the drawings when they identify the drawings. For clients or occupants, it is more difficult to decode or search building information correctly from immense documents. Furthermore, people with different background may have different interpretation to these symbols. DVIN was developed to address these challenges. It use linked plan view and rendered image as an interface which provides users great accessibility to varied building information. This system also makes design knowledge explicit and formalized to clients and occupants. By this system, knowledge model can be present via rendered image through internet. Clients and customer can easily find any information which is provided by manufacture or architect directly and timely. After the design and construction process is finished, this system also can be used for building maintenance and management. This system explores the possibility of visualizations knowledge model as an interface through the whole building lifecycle.

  • Author: Chien-Lin Chen
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2007

DVIN: a Dual-View Information Navigator

ACADIA Conference Proceedings

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Presents DVIN, a Dual-view Information Navigator combining coordinated plan and 3D "in scene" views in an online Java applet in order to improve design comprehension, navigation, and data query for clients and other naive users of building information models, while rendering the data accessible to users without CAD skills or high-end software.

  • Authors: Chien-Lin Chen, Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2007

A Genetic Algorithm Approach to Space Layout Planning Optimization

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Every architectural design process starts with the schematic design phase, wherein architects have to satisfy a collection of adjacency constraints among spaces and dimensional constraints over each space element. Here, architects face a complicated problem. Some constraints contradict others; priorities may not be clear and the adjacency constraints grow exponentially as the number of rooms in a design problem increases. In large design problems, optimizing such a problem is a time consuming trial- and-error task that could benefit from computational assistance. Among the different computational methods that have been used in optimization problems, artificial intelligence methods have shown a potential to produce novel optimized solutions. In this thesis, genetic algorithm, one of the powerful search methods in artificial intelligence, is used to create an intelligent prototype to be used in early phases of design. This prototype is able to generate alternative schematic designs to help the architects choose a direction for their design, while having a broad perspective about other good possibilities.

  • Author: Hoda Homayouni
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2007

Sense Respond and Adapt: An Architecture to Mitigate Natural Disasters

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The twenty first century is an era of invention and innovation of new technologies in building automation. Automation is utilized in almost all phases of the building's life cycle. This thesis investigates the utilization of building automation technologies during calamities such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, floods and etc. Many measures have been taken to mitigate the impact of natural disasters on buildings and human life. There are bylaws that architects have to follow while designing a building in earthquake zones or flood prone areas. However, it is not enough; channeling the emerging technologies into the design process can be useful to cope with natural disasters in a more efficient and better way. The inspiration is driven from Nature: sense, respond, and adapt. The thesis demonstrates a proof of concept for mitigating natural disasters by designing buildings that act as sensing, responding and adapting structures. Two aspects of disaster mitigation have been addressed: to create effective warning systems using ad-hoc networking; and b) to demonstrate a solution to prevent flying debris resulting from building elements, which is a prime problem during hurricanes. On the whole, the discussions reveal a framework for utilizing building automation systems for various naturally occurring disaster scenarios.

  • Author: Dipti Shah
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2006

Context Aware Paper-Based Review Instrument: A Tangible User Interface for Architecture Design Review

ACADIA 2006

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Review of building information encoded in construction documents is time consuming and cognitively challenging. The increasing use of computers for communications and building information modeling (BIM) means more and more information will be available digitally, but may not be explicitly included in the editing environment. A new over-the-shoulder multi-user interface paradigm, combining aspects of Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) and Augmented Reality (AR) was developed in a prototype proof-of-concept application called CAPRI (Context Aware Paper-based Review Instrument). This paper reports on the rationale and development of the CAPRI system.

  • Authors: Eun Soo Lee, Sungho Hong, Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2006

Evaluation of high dynamic range photography as a luminance data acquisition system

Lighting Research and Technology

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    In this paper, the potential, limitations and applicability of the High Dynamic Range (HDR) photography technique are evaluated as a luminance mapping tool. Multiple exposure photographs of static scenes were taken with a commercially available digital camera to capture the wide luminance variation within the scenes. The camera response function was computationally derived by using Photosphere software, and was used to fuse the multiple photographs into an HDR image. The vignetting effects and point spread function of the camera and lens system were determined. Laboratory and field studies showed that the pixel values in the HDR photographs correspond to the physical quantity of luminance with reasonable precision and repeatability.

  • Author: Mehlika Inanici

2006

Surfing the Tide of Change

ACADIA 2006 Proceedings

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    A white-paper reflecting on past and future challenges and opportunities for ACADIA and its members.

  • Author: Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2006

The Virtual Lighting Laboratory: Per-pixel Luminance Data Analysis

Luekos, Journal of the Illuminating Engineering society of North America

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The Virtual Lighting Laboratory (VLL) is an image based lighting analysis tool and methodology. Through appropriate modeling, rendering, and image technology, physically based renderings and HDR Photographs can be used to extract per-pixel lighting information. In VLL, per-pixel lighting data extracted from physically based renderings is processed through mathematical and statistical operations to perform lighting analysis with detail, flexibility, and rigor that may be infeasible or impossible with the traditional lighting analysis approaches.

  • Authors: Mehlika Inanici, Mojtaba Navvab

2006

GIS to 3DS Data Conversion

DMG Whitepaper

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Describes the steps involved in converting ArcView GIS data, as found in the UW Libraries, into usable 3D data for Autodesk 3D Studio Max (3DS) and similar programs, as used in the Department of Architecture.

  • Author: Daniel Belcher

2006

Arch 597: Conference Publication Targets

DMG White-papers


2005

Per-pixel Data Acquisition with High Dynamic Range Photography

International Commission on Illumination (CIE) 2005 Conference

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Recognizing the need for a tool that can capture the luminance values within a large field of view at a high resolution with a quick and inexpensive method, High Dynamic Range (HDR) photography technique has been evaluated. In HDR Photography, multiple exposure photographs are taken to capture the wide luminance variation within a scene. These photographs are used to automatically recover the camera response curve, and then used to fuse the multiple photographs into a single HDR image. Laboratory and field studies have shown that the pixel values in the HDR photographs can correspond to the physical quantity of luminance with reasonable precision and repeatability. The resultant HDR images are very useful for qualitative and quantitative lighting analysis since they can be post-processed with per-pixel data analysis techniques.

  • Author: Mehlika Inanici
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2005

CAPRI (context aware pen-based review instrument) : a context-aware query interface for architectural information

MS Thesis archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Architectural designers often use verbal-interaction metaphors when talking about the relationship between a designer and their drawings, as if they constituted partners in a conversation. Indeed, sketching or drawing often seems to serve a memory encoding function for the designer, helping to store rationale, purpose, and knowledge for later retrieval. Unfortunately, sketching mostly enables the designer to communicate to their drawing, but not vice-versa. Information retrieval from a drawing set tends to be either instantaneous (recovering a memory triggered by visual memory of the drawing configuration) or quite laborious (reconstructing knowledge amongst the human actors through file reference, further research, or secondary memory recall). This paper introduces a prototype drawing review tool that enhances the knowledge-recovery process required by the second case. Use of a customizable pen-based interface minimizes the cognitive load on the reviewer, while context-aware interpretation of sketch actions allows the reviewer to query the existing drawing (and the design knowledge base behind it) in a personal, natural, and fluid way. The reviewer's graphic queries are contextualized by the drawing under review, enriching the semantic meaning of the simple queries. Thus, sketching with intention on the existing drawing produces a query that varies the query according to drawing's properties. The system uncovers the possibilities of context-aware interface to query new meaning that drawing elements and reviewer's intention produce. This thesis explores the relationship of construction documents to their related backing data and the process of document review. It is supposed that reviewers might benefit from simpler, smarter interfaces such as pen-and-gesture-based interaction. Further, the thesis explores the ways in which a graphical "selection" operation may be contextualized through consideration of drawing conventions: layer names, file names, etc.

  • Author: Eun Soo Lee
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2004

FlexM: Designing a Physical Construction Kit for 3D Modeling

G-CAD 2004

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper presents our investigation in designing a hub and strut kit that interfaces to a 3D graphics application. FlexM is a prototype in progress of a flexible physical interface for manipulating and building 3D geometry. Using the FlexM hub and strut components, designers can build and explore 3D geometry with the ease of a toy and the power of a computer. The hubs transmit the model's topology and geometry to the computer, where the model is rendered on the screen in real time.

  • Authors: Markus Eng, Ken Camarata, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2004

Design Evaluator: Critiquing Freehand Sketches

UW Thesis archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This thesis concerns about how feedback integrates into a sketch design system. Design Feedback as critiques can help the designer better envisage what a design will be like in advance, allowing the designer to avoid certain kinds of errors. This thesis discusses how a freehand sketch critiquing system can be developed and how this tool can support in the architectural design process as design tool. The thesis proposes a working prototype, Design Evaluator to demonstrate the potential of this knowledge-based design system. The Design Evaluator system has the design knowledge translated into rules related to four architectural spatial issues: proper room sequence, adjacency, room placement, and minimum area. The Design Evaluator interprets the designer's architectural diagram and recognizes the spatial relations such as circulation paths and room placements. It checks the architectural diagram with the built-in rules. When a rule violation occurs, the system displays the design critiques in three ways: text messages, annotated drawings, and texture-mapped 3D visualization. These critiques stimulate the designer's "reflection-in-action" cycle during the sketching of her/his design ideas. Moreover, they help the designer to detect errors in the early design stage.

  • Author: Yeonjoo Oh
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2004

CRITIQUING FREEHAND SKETCHING: A Computational Tool for Design Evaluation

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Design Evaluator is a computational tool to support design reasoning. In this paper we describe how architects reason about spatial relations, functional concerns and 3D space with drawings. Design Evaluator is a freehand sketching environment that offers critiquing of circulation paths and arrangement of functions in a floor plan diagram. The critiques are presented in the forms of text, diagrammatic annotation and 3D VRML.

  • Authors: Yeonjoo Oh, Mark D Gross, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2004

EspressoCAD: A System to Support the Design of Dynamic Structure Configurations

submitted to G-CADS 2004

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    EspressoCAD is a computer assisted design system created to support the design of structures composed of our modular robotic building blocks, Espresso Blocks. EspressoCAD's interface allows designers to manipulate individual blocks. By recording these manipulations designers can create actions to control the behavior of groups of blocks. The current version is implemented as an AutoCAD plugin written in Visual Basic.

  • Authors: Michael P Weller, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2004

WINDOW SEAT: Visual Experience with an Interactive Chair

submitted to G-CADS 2004

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Window Seat is an interactive furniture piece ("chairware") that acts as a control mechanism for viewing and avigating remote or non-existent locations, such as a scale model of a building or virtual world. We built a rocking chair as an interface that controls the two axes of movement of a pan and tilt camera. A video projector and mirror are mounted on the chair to display the remote interior space onto the wall in the front of the chair for a virtual space immersion experience.

  • Authors: Yeonjoo Oh, Doo Young Kwon, Babak Ziraknejad, Ken Camarata, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2004

DESIGN EVALUATOR: Critiquing Freehand Sketches

submitted to G-CADS 2004

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Design Evaluator is a freehand drawing environment that incorporates critiquing into a freehand sketch design system for early design. Design Evaluator's main features include a sketch interface, critiquing, and visualization of critiquing results. The system interprets the floor plan and provides critiques of three types when it finds conflicts between the sketched floor plan and built-in rules; text message, annotated drawing and 3D model/walk-through.

  • Authors: Yeonjoo Oh, Mark D Gross, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2004

Baristas Unite! Reclaim Urban Spaces with Espresso Blocks!

submitted to Transportable Environments III


2004

Geometric Shape Generator (GSG)

thesis proposal draft

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    GSG is an end-user-programmable archiving and interface system that the designer may use and is capable of manipulating codes to generate recursive shapes. GSG generates a wide variety of shapes and patterns. Simple or complex algorithmic formulas and/or transformation rules may be utilized to alter, modify, replicate, or transform the current geometric shapes or patterns. There are endless numbers of design styles, which are created by limited sets of rules. GSG is a design tool that allows the designer to choose and apply individual rules and algorithm to generate geometric shapes or patterns. Additionally, depending on how the formulas and order of transformation is applied, we may also alter, modify, replicate, or transform the current chaos theory based shapes or patterns.

  • Author: Golnaz Mohammadi
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2004

A Computationally Enhanced Play Board For Group Interaction

Pervasive Computing

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    People Pretzel is a computationally enhanced game board taht aims to encourage informal social interaction in public spaces. The People Pretzel uses sound, light and visual images to entice community members to participate in playful group interaction. To play, the players are required to collaborate, using their bodies as playing pieces. This physical interaction is computationally mediated and augmented to produce an improvisational multimedia performance for the enjoyment of players and spectators alike.

  • Authors: Orit Shaer, Babak Ziraknejad, Ken Camarata, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross

2004

Artifacts for Displaying Home Energy Use

GCADS

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Combining the easy to use characteristics of tangible interfaces with the peripheral representation of ambient displays, two prototype energy displays—Energy Cube and Energy Magnets—were designed to make people aware of their home energy consumption. This paper reports on the design and evaluation of those two displays.

  • Authors: Ken Camarata, Drew Bregel, Ellen Do, Mark Gross

2004

Paper and Scissors as a Tangible User Interface for Urban Design--a user-centered approach

UW Thesis archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Tangible user interfaces have emerged as an active research topic in human computer interaction since the late 1990s. However, most tangible projects are inspired by new technologies and do not take into account how users would use the technology. User-centered principles were adapted to build the MouseHaus Table system, a digital tabletop system with a tangible user interface and a computer simulation to support community participation in urban design and planning. The thesis has two parts: The first part describes a user-centered development of the MouseHaus Table and the second part focuses on evaluation of the system. The user-centered development started with observing current practice in a community meeting and literature research. Based on these observations, the MouseHaus Table was implemented to enable users who have no previous computer knowledge to interact with the computer simulation using ordinary objects such as paper and scissors. Two interviews supported the usefulness of the MouseHaus Table in the urban design and planning context. An initial usability test was completed and demonstrated that people interact more when using a tangible user interface than a mouse-controlled GUI. An evaluation framework to address face-to-face communication in tangible collaboration was established based on the findings. An empirical study of basic manipulation using MouseHaus Table was completed and the performance measures were significantly better when using the paper interface than with mouse-controlled GUI. A benchmark-like approach, decomposing user interaction into a set of core actions, emerged from the empirical study and suggested mechanisms of tangibility and future directions for tangible user interface research.

  • Author: Chen-Je Huang

2004

Exploring Design Shapes with Geometry

UW Thesis archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This thesis presents a collection of geometric shapes and patterns produced with simple programming codes. The codes employ algorithms that define shapes through mathematical equations. Altering or modifying the numeric values and basic variables in the algorithm generate a variety of geometric forms. To enable designers/architects to understand and explore geometric shape generation easily, a catalog of shapes with their numeric values and generating algorithm was complied. This catalog provides an easy navigator through the design space of interesting geometric patterns. The numeric values provided in the catalog for each shape may be used as a reference for producing similar shapes. The architects and designers have been using geometric shapes or patterns that may be valuable in their architectural design process. This thesis gives a brief review of various architectural examples from different eras and cultures to demonstrate the rules of geometry in architectural design. This also sets the background and rationale for exploring geometry algorithmically. The programming codes are saved and archived in the Processing environment for generating geometric shapes at a later time. The generated shapes can be saved as image files such as 'tiff' or 'jpeg' files, or saved as animated java applets for later manipulation. Mathematical equations are used in the codes to produce interesting geometric shapes. Finally, a collection of generated shapes was used for design of a library. The generated shapes were used as the pattern for floor plan layouts. The generated shapes and patterns were also used for interior building design, such as tiling pattern window details.

  • Author: Golnaz Mohammadi
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2004

TIH - Tangible Interfaces at Home

MS Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The Tangible Interfaces at Home (TIH) project involves the development and integration of computationally enhanced interactive devices and smart environments. Due to the convergence of several technologies, the computer will no longer be a separate appliance, but will be built into the home. This thesis explores the implication of this convergence, which can free individuals from a host of ordinary activities and leave them with more spare time. Areas such as safety, entertainment, energy conservation, and communication/information benefit from this integration. An important aspect of the emerging technology is the use of alternative (non-keyboard) input devices and the use of alternative (not monitor) output devices collectively called 'Tangible Interfaces at Home' in this thesis. The TIH components constitute a set of experimental configurations exploring the potentials of this new technology. They include 'Window Seat', Interactive Twister Game Board', 'Energy Conservation Tutor', 'eLight' and 'eFrame'. Each is described. The Window Seat is a computationally augmented rocking chair that operates as an interface to control the pan and tilt motion of a web camera in a virtual or remote location. The Window Seat extends the safety by, for example, enabling a parent to monitor her child from a different room. The Interactive Twister Game Board is a computationally augmented interactive game board that encourages collaborative interaction and entertainment using sound, light and images. Energy Conservation Tutor is an ambient display designed to promote awareness of energy consumption levels in the home. Ambient displays can also communicate information about occupants and their surroundings. eLight senses and responds to the presence of the house occupants to provide light and conserve energy. eFrame is a large information display designed for a quick overview of information. This ordinary wall frame is equipped with buttons permitting selection of preset information channels and is positioned in a common area of the house to promote the sharing of family communication and information. eFrame provides the user with a quick glance at digital information.

  • Author: Babak Ziraknejad
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2004

FlexM: a Computational Construction Kit for Architectural Modeling

DMG Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This thesis explores the design and building of FlexM, a computational construction kit for building and manipulating 3D geometry for architects and designers. The purpose of FlexM is to put the control of modeling with the computer in the designer's hands. FlexM is a design concept to be realized in this thesis. Using the FlexM components of hubs and struts in place of the standard keyboard and mouse, the designer can build a digital model with physical constructs. Architects are trained in the tradition of model building to develop spatial skills, to foster an appreciation for materiality, and to offer the intrinsic satisfaction of mastering craft. In addition, model building aids in working out 3D design details, and in visualizing the nature of architectural spaces. In spite of their precision and efficiency, conventional computer tools for the architect, like CAD (e.g. ArchiCad, AutoCad, or Microstation) or 3D graphics applications (e.g. FormZ, Maya, Rhino or Studio Max), strip away the essence of architecture - the joy of craft. Why can't the designer interact with the computer with the freedom and ease of a toy? FlexM will bridge the gap between the physical, tactile interaction (play) and the computer interface. It aims to provide a versatile modeling interface between the designer and the computer.

  • Author: Markus Eng
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

Design Evaluator: Sketching Interface with Design Critiques

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Design Evaluator is a sketch-based environment that supports design evaluation about spatial organization in the early design stage. Design evaluation is an important part of the iterative design process. Therefore, a computational support for design that provides evaluation feedback will be useful. In the early stages of design, designers often use freehand drawing to represent their ideas and to generate design alternatives. An effective evaluation tool for early design should support freehand drawing. Design Evaluator has three main components: a sketch-based interface, a design evaluation advisor, and a display manager. The sketch interface of Design Evaluator supports design sketching, and diagram recognition. The evaluation advisor infers and extracts information from the diagrams to suggest and retrieve design advice. The display manager then provides text notes, plan annotation on the diagram, and walkthrough of the 3D space.

  • Authors: Yeonjoo Oh, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

Window Seat: Interactive Chairware for Experiencing Virtual Spaces

CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Window Seat is an interactive furniture piece("chairware") that acts as a control mechanism for viewing and navigating remote or non-existent locations, such as a scale model of a building or virtual world. We built a rocking chair as an interface that controls the two axes of movement of a pan and tilt camera. A video projector and mirror are mounted on the chair to display the remote interior space onto the wall in the front of the chair for a virtual space immersion experience.

  • Authors: Yeonjoo Oh, Doo Young Kwon, Babak Ziraknejad, Jennifer Lewis, Ken Camarata, Ellen Do, Mark Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

Spot: A 3D Environment for Direct Sunlight Visualization

CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Spot is a working prototype of a tool aimed at helping architects quickly preview the amount of direct sunlight that will reach specific a area on a project over time.

  • Authors: Sebastien Bund, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

LightSketch: A sketch-modeling program for lighting analysis

CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper presents a flexible, yet powerful lighting analysis tool, LightSketch. LightSketch is a sketch-based modelling program for lighting analysis. It allows the user to draw both architectural and lighting related symbols which are converted into a 3D model for lighting visualization. It is motivated by examining the strengths and limitations of current lighting design practices. Its use is illustrated with design scenarios.

  • Authors: Dan Glaser, Jan Voung, Ling Xiao, Bonnie Tai, M. Susan Ubbelohde , John Canny, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

Scythe And Sew: A Tool For Creating Meaningful Patterns In Lighting Simulation Data

Building Simulation

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper presents "Scythe and Sew", a software environment for analyzing lighting simulation data. It provides a spreadsheet like infrastructure for manipulating high-dimensional simulation results. It allos users to both import and create lighting simulation data, or patterns, into a workspace for inspection. A composition area allows the user to perform algebraic operations on the patterns to obtain new insight into the data. This framework allows for a range of lighting assessments including comparing model performance under two standard skies, to a light ing requirement, and at two geographic regions. Various examples are illustrated

  • Authors: Ben Liao, James Peng, Osbert Feng, Dan Glaser, John Canny, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

MouseHaus Table

CAAD Futures 2003

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    MouseHaus Table provides a computationally enhanced physical environment to support discussion and decision-making about urban design. It provides a physical interface that enables participants who have no previous computer experience to interact with a pedestrian simulation program. Poster: 1.76 MB pdf http://depts.washington.edu/dmgftp/publications/pdfs/CF03_MT_Poster.pdf

  • Authors: Chen-Je Huang, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

Inspired by Eisenman: ArchiDNA, a creative shape generative system

CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Form making is an important and creative act in design. Architects often draw shapes to find design solutions and solve problems. Shape Grammar systems provide automatic shape generation following designer defined rules. Research in Shape Grammar has focused on analyzing existing designs and generating new design patterns (Stiny 1972, Flemming 1990). In this paper, we describe our creative multi-user shape-generative system called ArchiDNA.

  • Authors: Doo Young Kwon, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

Using Augmented Reality for Visualizing Complex Graphs in Three Dimensions

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2003)

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    In this paper we explore the effect of using augmented reality (AR) for three-dimensional graph link analysis. Two experiments were conducted. The first was designed to compare a tangible AR interface to a desktop-based interface. Different modes of viewing network graphs were presented using a variety of interfaces. The results of the first experiment show that a tangible AR interface is well suited to link analysis. The second experiment was designed to test the effect of stereographic viewing on graph comprehension. The results show that stereographic viewing has little effect on comprehension and performance. These experiments add support to the work of Ware and Frank, whose studies showed that depth and motion cues provide huge gains in spatial comprehension and accuracy in link analysis.

  • Authors: Daniel Belcher, M.Billinghurst, S.E. Hayes, R. Stiles
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

Transformation of High Dynamic Range Images into Virtual Lighting Laboratories

International Building Performance and Simulation Association (IBPSA) Conference, Eindhoven, Netherlands, 10 - 14 August, 2003.

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The paper demonstrates an image-based lighting analysis procedure and tool called Virtual Lighting Laboratory. Virtual Lighting Laboratory is a computer environment, where the user has been provided with matrixes of illuminance and luminance values extracted from high dynamic range digital images. The discussions mainly refer to the flexibility of capabilities within a virtual laboratory environment to handle various lighting design and analysis problems. Conception and utilization of virtual lighting meters and per-pixel lighting analyses are demonstrated through architectural examples.

  • Author: Mehlika Inanici
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

Requirements for an Effective Distributed Design Review

Connecting -- Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8]

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Due to wider availability of high-bandwidth communication networks and the maturity of commercial collaboration software, schools of architecture are experimenting with computer-aided distributed design reviews. A distributed design review enables geographically-distant participants to discuss a common design project using computer-supported collaborative technologies such as videoconferencing, voice over IP, and shared applications. While potentially beneficial to students, and attractive to teachers, there are a number of challenges facing the integration of synchronous distributed design reviews into the design studio by technically inexperienced faculty without significant technical support. This paper seeks to make it easier for faculty to make routine utilization of such reviews by examining our own experiences with a number of such reviews, in a variety of contexts, distilling out a set of guidelines for future reviews.

  • Authors: Wassim Jabi, Brian R Johnson, Glenn Goldman
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

eFrame


2003

Energy Conservation Tutor (ECT)

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Energy Conservation Tutor is an ambient display device that aims to encourage the residents to be conscious of the amount of electricity consumed at home. ECT generates large, brilliant, and endless unique kaleidoscope-type light patterns on the neighboring walls and ceiling. The less energy consumed in the house the brighter and the more stimulating the patterns of ECT; conversely, the more energy consumed the dimmer and the more diffused the patterns generated. ECT is an expressive ambient display designed to promote awareness of energy consumption levels, and aims to expand the idea of 'interface display.'

  • Authors: Babak Ziraknejad, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

ArchiDNA: A Generative System for Shape Configuratons

working paper

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The paper concerns an easy-to-use and powerful generative system for shape configurations. It investigates how a generative CAD software can be developed to embody a style and how this software can serve as a computational tool in design. Our proposed system, ArchiDNA specifies a design style with the use of operations and supports designers generating new configurations for their design.

  • Authors: Doo Young Kwon, Mark Gross, Ellen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

ArchiDNA: A Genreative System for Shape Configuratons

DMG Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This thesis concerns a new generation process for shape configurations using a set of operations. The approach derives from analyzing a particular design style and programming them into a computer. It discusses how generative CAD software can be developed that embodies a style and how this software can serve in the architectural design process as a computational design tool. The thesis proposes a prototype software system, ArchiDNA, to demonstrate the use of operations to generate drawings in a specific design style. ArchiDNA employs a set of operations to produce design drawings of shape configuration in Peter Eisenman's style for the Biocentrum building plan in Frankfurt, Germany. The principles of form generation are defined as a set of operations. ArchiDNA generates 2D and 3D drawings similar to Eisenmans plan and model for the Biocentrum building. The extension system of ArchiDNA, called ArchiDNA++, supports designers in defining operations and generating shape configurations. Designers can enter and edit their own shapes for the generation process and also control the parameters and attributes for shape operations. Thus, designers can manage the generation process and explore using ArchiDNA++, to generate shape configurations that are consistent with their own drawing style.

  • Author: Doo Young Kwon
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

How is a piece of software like a building? Toward general design theory and methods

NSF Workshop on Science of Design: Software Intensive Systems


2003

Light Pen -- sketching light in 3D

Proceedings of CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    We describe a lighting design system driven by sketching on 3D virtual models. Conventional lighting design tools simulate the lighting effects of design decisions such as window locations, surface treatments, and fixture placement. Light Pen takes the inverse approach by allowing the designer to indicate desired illumination on a 3D model. This serves as input to a knowledge-based lighting design system, which recommends what lights to use and where to place them, based on the designer's expressed intentions and on the geometry of the space.

  • Authors: Thomas Jung, Mark D Gross, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

LiQuID: Lighting Quality in Design

CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    LiQuID is an analytical tool for evaluating a comprehensive set of lighting data to account for the complex nature of daylight. The program is designed to generalize large collections of lighting data by performing automatic classification, lighting quality analysis, and a summary component. Automatic classification is a data-driven method for identifying and organizing sets of data, based on similarities in light intensity and distribution. Lighting quality analyses are based on the normative lighting characteristics defined in industry standard handbooks (e.g.(Illuminating Engineering Society et al. 2000; Benya et al. 2001)). These sources contain guidelines on evaluating architectural models for factors like direct glare and light distribution. A summary module integrates with a user interface for a building designer to review.

  • Authors: James Peng, Ben Liao, Dan Glaser, John Canny, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

ITR proposal: Computationally Enhanced Construction Kits

Proposal to the National Science Foundation

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Construction kits—toys designed for the building or assembly of physical models have historically played a powerful educational role in children's lives. Viewing the landscape of these kits—geometric design sets, erector sets, architectural blocks, anatomical models, chemical modeling kits, and so forth—we can see manifest strengths: at their best, they permit children to design and build three-dimensional models and to learn through tactile experience. Nonetheless, traditional construction kits also have striking limitations. They offer little in the way of direct communication with their users—for example, a traditional kit cannot offer a student information or advice about how to proceed in building a model, and as a result, crucial opportunities for student reflection may be lost. Perhaps even more importantly, traditional constructions—i.e., the models produced tend to be aesthetically and behaviorally limited. This proposal argues that through the use of embedded computation, pieces within a construction kit may communicate with each other, with desktop machines, and with their users; and overall, by integrating construction kits with computation, the educational power and expressiveness of these kits can be greatly increased.

  • Authors: Mark D Gross, Michael Eisenberg
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

Learning via Distributed Dialogue: Livenotes and Handheld Wireless Technology

Center for Innovative Learning Technologies (CILT)

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The report focus on the development of learning metrics based on analysis of two classes (a graduate discussion group on Technology and Sustainable Economic Technology ("TASED") at the University of California at Berkeley during late fall 2002 and a graduate design studio ("Seattle Studio") at the University of Washington in Seattle during mid-spring 2003). The report provides details of the studies, their methodologies, and key findings, with emphasis given to the Seattle findings. The study yielded many new insights into the nature of distributed dialogue. We proposed learning metrics in this report deal with the logevity and character of conversation threads, the extent to which participants ask prompting questions or make provacative statements that inspire further dialogue.

  • Authors: Alastair Iles, Dan Glaser, Matthew Kam, John Canny, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

The Junk Mail to Spam Converter

Ubiquitous Computing Adjunct Proceedings

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The junk mail to spam converter is a prototype designed and built to demonstrate the idea of a physical-to-virtual filter. A piece of mail is fed into a slot in the front of the machine, and a webcam takes a picture of the envelope and emails it to your account before the letter is shredded.

  • Authors: Michael P Weller, Mark D Gross, Jim Nicholls, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

A Physical Computing Studio: Exploring Computational Artifacts and Environments

International Journal of Architectural Computing (IJAC)

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper describes a studio that explores interfaces for computationally enhanced artifacts and environments. The studio is designed as a traditional architectural design studio, fostering creative thinking and encouraging hands-on learning. It brings students from art, music, architecture, computer science, and engineering together into teams to design and build physical computing projects. The team's unusual mix of knowledge and experience allows for creative solutions. As a result, the studio has become a test bed for new and interesting ideas.

  • Authors: Ken Camarata, Mark D Gross, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

Catalyst Proposal: Toward a Center for the Science of Design Learning

proposal to NSF's "sciences of learning" initiative

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Our vision is to develop a common and learnable understanding of design that can be applied across domains. Researchers and practitioners in the artificial sciences will share this understanding, in much the same way that researchers and practitioners in the natural sciences share a common definition of scientific method. This shared understanding will enable researchers and practitioners to more effectively collaborate to build complex artifacts, as well as enable educators to better teach students to be more effective in solving design problems. We believe that there is a science of design that has yet to emerge from the many views that exist today. We further believe that understanding that science will enable the artificial sciences to better educate problem solvers. To establish the organizational and intellectual capital needed to define a Science of Design Learning Center, this Catalyst project consists of four primary activities further mapping the design community, bringing that community together, conducting limited research and education pilot programs, and designing the Science of Design Learning Center.

  • Authors: Michael Atwood, Mark D Gross, Kate McCain, Anders Morch
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

MouseHaus Table, a Physical Interface for Urban Design

16th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    MouseHaus Table is a computationally enhanced physical environment that supports collaborative urban design discussion. The system consists of a custom-made table with a rear projection screen, a video camera, projector and a simple pedestrian simulation program. MouseHaus Table provides a physical interface that enables participants who have no previous computer experience to interact with a pedestrian simulation program.

  • Authors: Chen-Je Huang, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

ArchiDNA: Shape Generative System for Rule-based Operations

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper concerns the computer generation of various spatial layouts using a set of rules defined by a certain design style. It discusses how software can be developed from a style and how it can serve in the architectural design process as a computational design tool. To describe design style, a design is sometimes analyzed with the common features of the design and the way the visual components are combined. From this information, we can understand and learn how the design is developed, and how to apply the style to a new design. With the advancement of computer technology, a design style is studied in the form of computer algorithms. We can develop or improve a computational design tool, which allows the designer to learn the style or develop a new design by modifying the style in various ways. Computational design augments the traditional concept of shape generation in a computer. Besides generating execution drawings in the final design phase, computers have increasingly been utilized to investigate spatial layouts and building forms in the schematic design process. Beyond simply using a computer, some designers recognize how computer algorithms work to generate shapes or forms and as a result, have incorporated the algorithms into their designs. However there is a need to develop a computational design tool with which designers can understand shape generation rules and their usage within their design. Our attempt is to define a certain style using a set of rules, develop the rules into a computational design tool, which will then be used to create other designs. Prototype software, called ArchiDNA, was created as the focus for this paper. There are two phases in creating the software: first develop a system to define a certain style with a set of rules, and then improve the system to comprehensively support the design process. The initial ArchiDNA developed a set of rules to follow Peter Eisenman's style. The rules were abstracted from his drawing for the Biocentrum project and implemented as a shape generative system using four common features, the components of the DNA structure (Adenine, Guanine, Cyanine, and Thymine) and the architectonic principle to imitate the DNA replication process (one shape as the base-shape, remains fixed while another shape as applier-shape is attached to its edges). In the ArchiDNA, designers can use any shape as applier-shape by simply selecting the shape and then applying it to the base-shape, so that the computer can generate the applier-shape's duplicates and attach them to the edge of the base-shape. Subsequently, the initial ArchiDNA was advanced with an interface to be "end-user-programmable"; that is, instead of using hand-built and hard-wired rules, the system allows users to program their own rules and shapes. Users can carry out the exploration of the rules and have the system generate consistent spatial layouts for their own design. Consequently, the spatial layout incorporates the designer's preference with the power of computation to generate a set of consistent shapes.

  • Author: Doo Young Kwon
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

The Design and Programming of Modular Robotic Construction Kits

DMG Working Memo

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The AFRL Space Vehicles Directorate's August 7, 2003 RFI "Space Legos" resonates with several projects currently underway in our research group at the University of Washington, Seattle. Most directly relevant is our project on reconfigurable modular robotic building blocks, described first below. Several of our other projects, described more briefly, are also gemane. Beyond the mechatronic challenges of constructing reliable modular robot systems, we believe we are well positioned to research the computer-assisted design software and programming environments needed to manage self-organizing systems building blocks.

  • Authors: Mark D Gross, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Michael P Weller
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

SPOT! Fetch Light! Interactive Navigable 3D Visualization of Direct Sunlight

eCAADe

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    SPOT is a 3D environment for direct sunlight visualization. Implemented in Java 3D, SPOT features two distinct and complementary components: Time Projection and Navigable Animation for virtual interaction. SPOT supports multi-dimensional data visualization including sun angle variations with diurnal and annual cycles in three-dimensional space. In SPOT users can sketch on any surface in the 3D environment to indicate the area for simulation. SPOT then generates a spatial distribution representation of the illuminance level on a selected surface over time, rendered with colors of varied gradients. SPOT also enables designers to visualize the temporal information of light distribution over time for a given point. For each point clicked on the 3D model, SPOT generates a calendar diagram where the X and Y axis represent the months of the year and the time of the day. The color of each cell of the calendar is the result of the calculation of the light amount reaching the selected point.

  • Authors: Sebastien Bund, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2003

espresso blocks: self-configuring building blocks

DMG Thesis Archives

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Espresso blocks apply the emerging technology of modular robotics to architectural applications. Espresso blocks are delivered to a site on a pallet and then assemble themselves into one of several pre-configured structures. Using a remote control, the occupant can cycle between different structures throughout the day to accommodate different activities such as an espresso stand during the day, a dining room in the evening, and a bedroom at night. The occupant can also rearrange individual blocks with their remote control to create new configurations, save them to their remote, and even trade designs with others.

  • Author: Michael P Weller
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2002

Drawing Marks, Acts, and Reacts, toward a computational sketching interface for architectural design

AIEDAM, Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Architects use sketching and diagramming in their esign process to perform functional reasoning, formal arrangements, analogy transfer, structure mapping, and knowledge acquisition. This paper describes a research framework of the author's efforts in the studies of design drawings and the building of computational sketching tools to support early conceptual design process in architecture. The first part of the paper discusses empirical studies conducted to determine or guess a designer's thought process from sketches and thus identifies domain specific graphical symbols. It proposes a reasoning process framework of drawing marks, acts, and reacts. The second part of the paper illustrates how design support tools could be developed based on these concepts, and the various applications of the study such as indexing and retrieving of design drawings or images based on recognition of geometric shapes and the spatial relationships among them.

  • Author: Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2002

Sketching Annotations in a 3D Web Environment

ACM Conference on Computer Human Interface

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Collaborative design review is an important part of architectural design work. The Space Pen system supports annotation and drawing on (and inside) 3D VRML/Java models using a regular Web browser to exchange text and sketched annotations for review.

  • Authors: Thomas Jung, Mark D Gross, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2002

FormWriter How-To Working Memo


2002

Functional and Formal Reasoning in Architectural Sketches

American Assocation for Artificial Intelligence

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Architects use different symbols and configurations in their drawings to explore alternatives and to communicate with each other. They use sketches to perform functional and formal reasoning in their design process. For example, when thinking about spatial arrangements, they draw bubble diagrams; when thinking about natural lighting, they draw a sun symbol and light rays. This paper reports the findings from empirical studies of drawings and reports the software systems that were implemented to support intention inference and automated activation of knowledge based design tools to support design. http://www.aaai.org/Symposia/Spring/2002/sss-02.html http://www.me.cmu.edu/faculty1/stahovich/sketchsymposium.htm

  • Author: Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2002

Compadres: Lightweight Suppport for Distributed Collaborators

Computer Support for Collaborative Learning

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Traditional design education relies heavily on passive presence awareness and unfocused interaction. Support for these modes of communication is largely absent from current computing environments. This paper reports on Compadres, a system for support of distributed collaborators through creation of group presence awareness on the web. Compadres provides configurable communications options, in both synchronous and asynchronous modes, including links for messaging, email, chat, and online file management. Compadres can support multiple workgroups or small classes. Two levels of presence awareness are provided: a real-time presence monitor for synchronous interaction, and an extended-time (historical) radar-view for "asynchronous presence" and collaborator engagement through way-laying. The basic system requires very little band-width, but the system extends easily to support desktop or camera image streams for real-time activity awareness. The system supports itinerant, or mobile, users (such as students) as well as situated users (such as faculty). Finally Compadres provides a framework for continued exploration of presence awareness. We have used this to explore a variety of alternative "soft" media presence awareness models.

  • Author: Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2002

Navigational Blocks: navigating information space with tangible media

ACM Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The Navigational Blocks project demonstrates a tangible user interface that facilitates retrieval of historical stories in a tourist spot. Orientation, movement, and relative positions of physical Blocks support visitor navigation and exploration in a virtual gallery. The Navigational Blocks system provides a physical embodiment of digital information through tactile manipulation and haptic feedback. The simple cubic form of the Blocks is easy to understand and therefore easy to use to manipulate complex digital information. Electromagnets embedded in the Blocks and wireless communication encourage users to quickly rearrange the Blocks to form different database queries.

  • Authors: Ken Camarata, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Brian R Johnson, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2002

MouseHause Table

MS thesis proposal

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This thesis uses MouseHaus Table as an example to demonstrate that tangible interaction offers advantages in collaborative design. I applied usability research methods to investigate group collaboration and analyze the communication among participants as an indicator for the quality of collaboration.

  • Author: Chen-Je Huang
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2002

Annotating and Sketching on 3D Web models

ACM Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper reports on our progress and findings in building a Web annotation system for non-immersive 3D virtual environments. Over the last two years, we developed and tested two systems for collaborating designers to comment on virtual 3D models. Our first system, Redliner lets design team members browse and leave text annotations on surfaces in three-dimensional models. Experience with Redliner, including two user evaluations in different settings, led us to develop Space Pen, a second annotation system with improved interaction capabilities. It goes beyond the post-it note metaphor, allowing users to draw in and on the virtual environment.

  • Authors: Thomas Jung, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2002

Navigational Blocks: Tangible Navigation of Digital Information

ACM Conference on Computer Human Interaction (CHI)

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Navigational Blocks provide a tangible user interface for applications such as information kiosks. Orientation, movement, and relative position of electronically and microprocessor augmented physical blocks support visitor querying, retrieving, understanding, navigation and exploration of an historical information database.

  • Authors: Ken Camarata, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross, Brian R Johnson

2002

Digital Sandbox, integrating landform making and analysis for landscape design

Artificial Intelligence in Design, AID '02, pp 165-188

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Digital Sandbox is a computational tool for landscape architecture design that provides design and analysis capabilities in the same environment. It uses image processing of hand gestures to infer the landform sculpting actions and simulates storm water accumulation over the digital terrain

  • Author: Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2002

Computationally-Enhanced Construction Kits for Children: Prototype and Principles

International Conference of the Learning Sciences, Seattle WA

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Construction kits--toys designed for the building or assembly of physical models often play an important educational role in children's lives. While such kits have tremendous strengths (e.g., they permit children to build three-dimensional models and to learn through tactile experience), they also have interesting limitations. Traditional construction kits offer little in the way of direct communication with their users--for example, a traditional kit cannot offer a student information or advice about how to proceed in building a model. More generally, traditional constructions, i.e., the models produced tend to be aesthetically and behaviorally limited. This paper argues that through the use of embedded computation, pieces within a construction kit may communicate with each other, with desktop machines, and with their users; and overall, by integrating construction kits with computation, the educational power and expressiveness of these kits can be greatly increased. As an example of many of the ideas presented here, we describe a prototype of a computationally-enhanced construction kit: a set of speech-enabled alphabet blocks. We conclude by discussing a variety of related research efforts and directions for future work.

  • Authors: Michael Eisenberg, Ann Eisenberg, Mark D Gross, Khomkrit Kaowthumrong, Nathaniel Lee, Will Lovett
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2002

Physical Computing: A Design Studio that Bridges Art, Science, and Engineering

ICLS (International Conference of the Learning Sciences)

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Design of computationally enhanced objects and places is an attractive and motivating activity that requires multidisciplinary learning and cooperation: it attracts computer scientists and engineers as well as architects, musicians, and artists. Students in our Physical Computing class explore this topic in a collaborative multidisciplinary environment. They learn to integrate design work in digital, analog, and mechanical domains involving sensors, software, and physical actuators as well as how to work together with team members from different disciplines.

  • Authors: Ken Camarata, Mark Gross, Ellen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2002

Virtuality and Place

ACADIA 2002 - Thresholds Between the Physical and Virtual

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper explores the relationship between place, computation, and experience. In particular, it seeks to understand the zone that exists between the digital world on the one hand, and the physical world on the other. It is suggested that the ideal of "immersive virtual reality", by focusing on technology systems to replace the sensory world, misses the opportunity to explore a broader range of connections. Such connections involve combining physical and digital components to create blended environments. A number of examples of such environments are examined. The term "blended reality" is proposed to describe such digitally augmented physical environments and to distinguish between them and virtual environments or cybrids. A design studio series formed around the exploration, design and experience of blended physical and digital spaces is described and selected results presented.

  • Author: Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2002

DAM: Digital Animation Museum

M Arch. Thesis

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The interaction of architecture and technology is, to many, simply a relationship between a building and the materials from which it is constructed. This thesis, however, explores the notion that architectural spaces and forms are influenced not only by construction technology, but also by everyday technology that we use to better our lives, and particularly focuses on the potential impact of wireless information technology on architecture. This thesis asserts that the implementation of information technology in architecture encourages greater interactivity between building and visitor and also increases flexibility in spatial programming. By incorporating wireless information technology as an essential design element of a museum, traditional notions of control points can be eliminated, and the building experience may be manipulated in a variety of ways to interact with and respond to visitor interests and preferences. In this way, both building and visitors are able to collaborate to produce a unique and individualized experience of the building space.

  • Author: Julie Chen
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2001

deliver E room : a new physical space for the residential units to come

Department of Architecture, University of Washington

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The need to allocate vendors of the 13th century castles gave origin to a large hall where all could gather,work and sleep.The need of iceboxes to be constantly replenished in the early 20th century gave origin to the ice/service entrance in many houses. In the 1950s the milkman model brought also the milk- box, a unit to be installed or built into customer's homes. Once again,deliveries will influence the architecture of the households,fueled this time by the e-commerce economy.Soon,a new appliance that will enable the unattended delivery of physical goods is going to be part of future households,and architects will have to plan ahead in order to accommodate this necessity of the Internet world. The space for this appliance, the deliverEroom,will have to be accessible from the interior and exterior of the house,allow enough capacity for the appliance that must accommodate most if not all deliveries,and access to it will most probably be controlled through the Net.

  • Author: Luis Fernando Borrero
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2001

Smart Objects: Constraints and Behaviors in a Three-Dimensional Design Environment

M.Arch thesis

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Each new design problem in architecture presents a new set of requirements. A designer must remain aware of these requirements and effectively communicate them to collaborators because the degree to which the requirements are met will determine the success of the solution. This thesis explores how design can be effectively presented in a medium that is both explorative of form and descriptive of the design problem's requirements. To facilitate this, we present Smart Objects, a constraint-based three-dimensional(3D) computer program. In Smart Objects, design intentions of an architectural problem are embedded as constraints into the modeled objects that compose a formal solution. A model is presented through a 3DVirtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) viewer and constrained by a software program we wrote in the Java language. Both the VRML viewer and the Java program are contained within a single web page. In Smart Objectsd. A designer meets or violates constraints, objects behave in a manner that reflects the requirements of the problem and intentions of the designer. SmartObjects communicates the design principles and guidelines that inform an architectural design to the collaborators involved in the project. It ensures that these principles and guidelines are maintained as the design progresses.

  • Author: Dustin Eggink
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2001

The Digital Sandbox: Integrating Design and Analysis in a new Earth-forming Tool

MLA, University of Washington

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Digital Sandbox is a computer application that provides better support for digital earth-forming. It enables a designer to sculpt a digital mesh, add trees and buildings, and run a simple stormwater accumulation model - all using freehand gestures in three-space.

  • Author: Robert Harris
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2001

Navigational Blocks (an interplay between the physical and the virtual)

M.Arch thesis, University of Washington, Dept of Architecture

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The Navigational Blocks project demonstrates a tangible user interface that facilitates retrieval of historical stories in a tourist spot. Orientation, movement, and relative positions of physical Blocks support visitor navigation and exploration in a virtual gallery. The Navigational Blocks system provides a physical embodiment of digital information through tactile manipulation and haptic feedback. The simple cubic form of the Blocks is easy to understand and therefore easy to use to manipulate complex digital information. Electromagnets embedded in the Blocks and wireless communication encourage users to quickly rearrange the Blocks to form different database queries.

  • Author: Ken Camarata
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2001

VR Sketchpad - Create Instant 3D Worlds by Sketching on a Transparent Window

CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper describes VR Sketchpad, a pen-based computing environment for inputting and locating 3D objects in a virtual world. Designer can use the transparency layers to quickly trace and extract any image underlay from other application software. The 3D scene generation has three levels of complexity: simple extrusion of any drawn lines of shapes (i.e., straight or curved wall and column extrusion), solid modelling from a given geometric object representation (spheres, cones and boxes), and complex configuration with objects from graphics library (furniture layout).

  • Author: Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2001

Space Pen: Annotation and Sketching on 3D Models on the Internet

CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Architects, contractors, and their clients schedule regular meetings throughout the design and building process. These meetings play an important role in a building design by facilitating communications from different stakeholders with various expertise. During these meetings they take notes, make comments and draw on design documents brought by the architect. These documents may be plans, sections, or even, at the early stage of the process, 3D models. Later, when construction work has begun, the whole team walks around the construction site and once again comments and discusses issues that were not evident on the 2D documents presented in the earlier stages. Decisions can then be made and slowly the construction can continue. However, today this process faces a new challenge: Many large architectural projects involve people from different places (sometimes even from different continents). It's not unusual to see a building in Germany designed by an American firm with the help of Japanese contractors. In these conditions, scheduling a meeting with all parties can be time consuming and not always possible. To support this new type of collaboration and to address problems caused by time difference, we developed the Space Pen Project. Space Pen allows all the people involved in a building design process to leave comments, to draw on, or even modify 3D models directly over the Internet using their regular browser and a pen based interface. Any participant involved in the design or the construction of the building can log on to a secured web site, view the latest version of the design as a 3D model, walk virtually around it and make comments, or directly draw their suggested modifications on that same 3D model. The modifications and annotations will be saved and ready for review by other members of the design team at their convenience. Furthermore, because Space Pen is an asynchronous system, there is no need to schedule any rendezvous or meeting. Anybody can just log-on, make suggestions directly onto the 3D models and save them on the server. Our first version of this system (called the Immersive Redliner) let people embed a note (displayed as a sphere) associated with a comment on a 3D model (a virtual Post-It note). We used VRML and Java EAI to implement the interactions between the 3D models and the back-end databases. To extend these functionalities and to enable people to actually draw or modify 3D elements directly over the Web, we now use Java3D, the 3D API provided by Sun Microsystems. Space Pen still embeds VRML models, recognizes and analyses them as if they were Java3D models; and handles all the user's interaction. In our first version of the system, we can draw any kind of shape or figure on the model, and also distinguish a drawing operation from "leaving a note" by identifying the user's click. Applying the same technology that Redliner uses to save comments on a distant server (cgi perl and java), Space Pen will be able to save and keep track of all modifications or added elements. The Space Pen system goes beyond our previous implementation in that it features two interaction modes: a "leaving a note" by a click action and a "redlining on the spot" drawing action with continuous pen down. These actions trigger saving and sorting of the comments and modification drawing trace on a web server that allows later retrieval and display of the design history with "on site" modifications. This paper describes our working Space Pen system, its functionalities, implementation details and use scenarios. The first part of the paper discusses the value of an online 3D sketching and annotation system for architects and designers. The second part of the paper outlines the rationale for choosing Java3D as the implementation platform, based on some key concepts behind Java3D. We discuss our approaches to create interaction and draw freely onto any surface of the 3D space. We also discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the new Java3D API: how well it can actually use VRML models, and the difficulty of analyzing these models for future interactions. We describe the current Space Pen sketching interface and how to recognize freehand sketches using diagrammatic parsing and scripting technologies and how we save them on a distant server. Finally, we discuss further research directions on online annotations of 3D models using pen-based input.

  • Authors: Thomas Jung, Mark D Gross, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2001

The Design Amanuensis - An Instrument for Multimodal Design Capture and Playback

CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Design researchers have used think-aloud, or protocol analysis, studies of designers in action to better understand their design processes [2, 3]. In these think-aloud studies, designers are given a problem, and then they are observed, audio-taped, and often videotaped as they work the problem. Later, the design researcher transcribes the taped record of the design session, and his or her notes, and constructs a time stamped record of the events in the session. The record typically consists of the drawings that the designer makes and his or her spoken comments; in addition it may indicate gestures such as pointing to portions of the drawing or body movement. This transcription is typically the main research material used for further analysis. Valuable as think-aloud studies are in design research, they require a great deal of effort on the part of the researcher. One of the chief difficulties of conducting is transcribing the design session after it has been recorded on tape. Relevant events in a design session often happen every few seconds. Depending on the level of detail that the design researcher is interested in, a one-hour design session can demand tens of hours of transcription time (carefully watching a video tape frame-by-frame to locate start and end times for events, and transcribing the spoken words). The session may result in a transcript that is tens of pages long. The Digital Design Recorder project aims to make this transcription easier, by helping the researcher capture the main spoken and drawn events of a design session, and constructing a machine-searchable transcription that serves as a pointer into the source data captured during the original design session. We have built a first, working, version of this system that captures the designer's drawings using a digitizing tablet and pen as well as the spoken think-aloud protocol. The captured audio is run through an off-the-shelf speech recognizer to generate a first pass at a text transcription of the design session. The three components: drawing, audio, and text transcript, are arrayed in a multimedia document. The design researcher can then review and annotate this document to construct a transcript of the design session. As current speech-recognition software is not entirely reliable, it is important to allow the design researcher to repair the machine-made text transcript; nevertheless, starting with an initial transcription is a significant improvement over starting from scratch. The speech recognition software associates the text transcript with the recorded audio so these repairs are somewhat easier to make than working with a simple audio or video recording. Related efforts in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) have recently explored multi-modal interfaces [1.5]; however they have not focused on design. Complementary efforts in design research (e.g., [4]) have focused on micro-analysis of stroke data, but not on creating transcript documents linking graphics and text. The paper reports on the design and implementation of the Digital Design Recorder, including a first round of experience using the Recorder to analyse designers in action. We review some of the specific challenges in constructing this system and how we addressed them, as well as our plans for enhancing this system in the future, to include indexed digital video as part of the record. We discuss other applications for the recorder, including its use as a note-taker for distributed design meetings that take place over the Internet.

  • Authors: Mark D Gross, Brian R Johnson, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2001

Gesture Modelling: Using Video to Capture Freehand Modeling Commands, CAAD Futures 33-46

CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Desktop video combined with gesture recognition can be used to build powerful and easy to use interfaces for three dimensional modelling. We have built a demonstration version of such a system.The paper describes our video capture and gesture recognition scheme and describes its use in some simple examples.

  • Authors: Mark D Gross, Ariel Kemp
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2001

Unfocused Interaction in Distributed Workgroups: Establishing Group Presence in a Web-Based Environment

CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Face-to-face human interaction is divided into "focused" and "unfocused" types. Unfocused interaction often conveys important content and context information and contributes to group cohesiveness and effectiveness. Research in Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) and Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) is also concerned with human interaction. CMC tools, such as electronic mail, and CSCW tools, such as Decision Support Systems (DSS) and Group Support Systems (GSS) provide for focused interaction among members of distributed workgroups. However, little has been published regarding unfocused interaction in distributed workgroups, where group members' primary work activities hold "center-stage" and communication activities are peripheral, though this describes many distributed educational and work situations. A framework for studying this type of support using standard web browsers and server applications is described, and informal preliminary results are discussed. Opportunities for future support of peripheral awareness and unfocused interaction are also discussed.

  • Author: Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2001

Emergence in a Recognition Based Drawing Interface

Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Visual and Spatial Reasoning '01

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    People perceive patterns in representations, patterns that may not have been initially intended. This phenomenon of emergence is deemed to play an important role in design. Computer based design assistants can and should support this human perceptual ability, using pattern recognition to anticipate human designers' perception of emergent shapes and supporting the subsequent manipulation of and reasoning with these shapes as part of the design. Freehand drawing programs with gesture recognition are well positioned to implement shape emergence. Support for emergent shapes in the Back of an Envelope system is described.

  • Author: Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2001

Connection & Transition, Exploring Place-Based Physical Environment in a Digital Media FirmPhysical Environment in a Digital Media Firm

M Arch

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The design solution of the typical high-tech firm bombards its employees with the same signs and sleek coded information that they are designing, instead of addressing their innate biological needs. In the workplace specifically, the change in technology has a pernicious result when its relationships are deployed society-wide as subsitutes for face-to face interactions, which are inherently richer than mediated interactions. This thesis presents a design of a media firm that engages build environment with lighting and natural and a CD-Rom digital sketchbookof the design process

  • Author: Gabriel Quinn Hanson

2001

Smart Objects: Constraints and Behaviors in a 3D Design Environment

Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    "Smart Objects" is a constraint-based collaborative three-dimensional (3D) design environment. Smart Objects uses constraints to maintain the larger intents of a design while remaining intuitive and accessible to all collaborators involved in a design project (designers, consultants, and clients.)

  • Authors: Dustin Eggink, Mark D Gross, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2001

Development Simulator: A tool for architects and urban designers

DMG Thesis Archive

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Development Simulator is a 3D simulation design application for architects and urban designers. Written in Visual Basic environment, using COM and ActiveX, it serves as a decision-making-support-system that reveals the impact of development numbers to three dimensional building form. The tool combines the power of a drawing program, AutoCAD 2000 and a spreadsheet program, Excel 2000. Development Simulator runs in Windows 2000.

  • Author: Doddy Samiaji
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2001

Communication Behaviors in Co-located Collaborative AR Interfaces

International Journal for Human Computer Interaction

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The authors present an analysis of communication behavior in face-to-face collaboration using a multi-user augmented reality (AR) interface. 2 experiments were conducted. In the 1st experiment, collaboration with AR technology was compared with more traditional unmediated and screen-based collaboration. In the 2nd experiment, the authors compared collaboration with 3 different AR displays. Several measures were used to analyze communication behavior, and the authors found that users exhibited many of the same behaviors in a collaborative AR interface as in face-to-face unmediated collaboration. However, user communication behavior changed with the type of AR display used. The authors describe implications of these results for the design of collaborative AR interfaces and directions for future research.

  • Authors: M. Billinghurst, Daniel Belcher, A. Gupta, K. Kiyokawa
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2001

Thinking with Diagrams in Architectural Design

Artificial Intelligence Review

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The paper discusses the use of freehand diagrams in architectural design. It examines the roles of diagrams in various contexts: pedagogical books, design studies, designers? introspective accounts and empirical studies of drawing in design. It offers several examples of thinking with diagrams in design and concludes with a discussion of the requirements for computational support for the diagrams in design thinking.

  • Authors: Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2001

Exploring Ambient Media Presence Awareness

University of Washington

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    In this paper I propose and explore a computer-mediated communication (CMC) interpersonal interaction paradigm for the home, based on instant messaging (IM), that allows individuals to feel a connection with others while remaining centered and with their psyche intact. I consider the motivating factors of media use as well as the intersection of artifacts and technologies currently used to connect interpersonally with others. The interaction paradigm proposed, IM ambient media, 'piggy backs' on IM interaction for three reasons 2 : (1) IM user populations are growing fast, (2) IM use seems to be motivated by some of the same interpersonal communication motives as mass media and CMC surveillance and social affiliation, and (3) IM interaction is asynchronous and lightweight and thus lends itself to ambient media. These three characteristics of IM, as well as characteristics of ambient media are discussed, in depth.

  • Author: William Washington
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2001

Mouse.class: Experiments for Exploring Dynamic Behaviors in Urban Places

M.Arch, Department of Architecture, University of Washington


2001

FormWriter: A Little Programming Language for Generating Three-Dimensional Form Algorithmically

CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in new methods of generating form. Stimulated, in part, by work such as Frank Gehry's Guggenheim museum in Bilbao and the Experimental Music Project in Seattle, and Greg Lynn's blob' architecture, many architects are seeking new methods to stimulate the creative generation of form. Among the methods architects are exploring is using algorithms to generate complex three-dimensional curves, arrangements, and foldings of space and material. In the case of Gehry, these forms result are made using software designed for aeronautical design; in the case of Lynn, they are generated by programmers who work with the architect to devise form-generating algorithms. In both instances, conventional architectural CAD modeling tools would not serve, Algorithmic generation can produce significantly different and more complex forms than conventional CAD, and emerging application of computer assisted manufacturing (CAM) techniques in architectural construction now make it possible to generate buildings whose form could not be easily described in any other way.. Producing three-dimensional computer graphics models has been made easy by the development of powerful modeling software that allows architects to shape and sculpt three dimensional material and space using 'direct manipulation' operations. However, it has been difficult to control the generation of three dimensional forms through complex parameterizations and more sophisticated algorithms. This capability has been more common in civil, aeronautical, and naval architecture. Although most architectural modeling programs offer macro facilities or embedded scripting languages, these are not especially easy to use, and in some cases, not well integrated into the modeling environment. On the other hand, although full-fledged programming languages such as C and Java can be used to write complex form-generating algorithms, they also require significant amounts of knowledge and effort in order to generate even simple forms. Some designers have resorted to using software such as Mathematica to generate three-dimensional forms, but these packages are oriented for other purposes than design, and are thus less than optimal. What is needed is a simple way for designers to explore and generate forms algorithmically, without having to learn a lot of needless programming complexity. For these reasons we have been developing WriteForm, an easy-to-use programming language designed especially to allow architects and architecture students to explore generating forms algorithmically. A designer can generate three dimensional graphics immediately with only a few lines of code, and within minutes can explore parameterized and conditional construction of forms to generate complex combinations of shapes. The graphics environment is integrated with the code editor and programming environment which allows a designer to explore forms fluidly without an annoying code-compile-view cycle. This paper describes the WriteForm language, its historical precedents, and our initial experience with using it as a medium for generating form. WriteForm is a language for novice programmers, designed as "low threshold; no ceiling." Although its ease of use makes it simple for non-programmers to use, it is nevertheless a powerful language, with constructs for passing arguments and returning values, conditional execution, iteration and recursion.

  • Author: Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2001

Graphics Interpreter of Design Actions - the GIDA system of diagram sorting and analysis

CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper describes the background and research for a diagram sorting and analysis system called GIDA -- Graphics Interpreter of Design Actions. The GIDA system explores how spatial relations between graphic symbols in a design drawing may be extracted and the transformations of the graphic elements between different drawings in a design process may be tracked.

  • Author: Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2000

Beyond the Low-hanging Fruit: Information Technology in Architectural Design, past, present, and future

ACSA

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Today's commercial CAD software is the product of years of research that began in the 1960's and 1970's. These applications have found widespread use in the architectural marketplace; nevertheless they represent only the first fruits of research in computer aided design. New developments based on research in human-computer interaction (HCI), computer-supported collaborative work (CSCW), and virtual reality (VR) will result in a next generation of tools for architectural design. Although preliminary applications to design have been demonstrated in each of these areas, excellent opportunities remain to exploit new technologies and insights in service of better design software. In this paper we briefly examine each of these areas using examples from our own work to discuss the prospects for future research. We envision that future design technologies will develop from current and traditional conventions of practice combined with forward looking application of emerging technologies. In HCI, pen based interaction will allow architects to use the pencil again, without sacrificing the added power of computer aided design tools, and speech recognition will begin to play a role in capturing and retrieving design critique and discussion. In CSCW, a new generation of applications will address the needs of designers more closely than current general purpose meeting tools. In VR, applications are possible that use the technology not simply to provide a sense of three-dimensional presence, but that organize design information spatially, integrating it into the representation of artifacts and places.

  • Authors: Mark D Gross, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2000

Drawing on the Back of an Envelope: a framework for interacting with application programs by freehand drawing

Computers and Graphics

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The Back of an Envelope project demonstrates how a calligraphic interface (one that employs a pen or stylus to input freehand drawing marks) can be used in a wide variety of domains, from databases to simulation programs, to 3D modeling, from mostly symbolic diagrams to freeform sketches. The wide variety of drawing types and domains calls for a diverse range of approaches. We describe some of the functionality of our systems, including contextual recognition of symbols and configurations and emergent shape recognition, and some of the calligraphic interfaces we've built.

  • Authors: Mark D Gross, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2000

Digital Clay: Deriving digital models from freehand sketches

Automation in Construction

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    During the initial stages of design, it is not uncommon to find an architect scribbling furiously with a thick pencil. Later in the design process, however, one might not be surprised to encounter the same individual in front of a computer monitor, manipulating three dimensional models in a series of activities that seem completely divorced from their previous efforts. Armed with evidence that sketching is an effective design method for creative individuals, we also recognize that modeling and rendering applications are invaluable design development and presentation tools, and we naturally seek a connection between these methodologies. We therefore present Digital Clay, a working prototype of a sketch recognition program that interprets gestural and abstracted projection drawings and constructs appropriate three dimensional digital models.

  • Authors: Eric Schweikardt, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2000

Between Friends: Support of Workgroup Communications

ACADIA

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The web offers both business and academic users potential benefits from on-line collaboration. On-line education presents universities with a means of handling the 'baby boom echo' without expanding physical campuses (Carnevale 2000). Business 'extranets' allow greater coordination amongst locations. Both involve substituting computer mediated communications (CMC) for traditionally face to face communications. Over the past several years, the author has deployed several of the available CMC technologies in support of small group interaction in academic and administrative settings. These technologies include email, video conferencing, web publication, web bulletin boards, web databases, mailing lits, and hybrid web BBS/email combinations. This paper reflects on aspects of embodied human interaction and the affordances of current CMC technology, identifying opportunities for both exploitation and additional development. One important but under-supported aspect of work group behavior is workspace awarenss, or peripheral monitoring. The Compadres web-based system, which was developed to support workspace awareness among distributed workgroup members is described. These findings are relevant to those seeking to create online communities: virtual design studios, community groups, distributed governace organizations, and workgroup formed as parts of virtual offices.

  • Author: Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2000

Place Based Web Resources for Historic Buildings

eCAADe

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Web sites with animations, panoramic images, sound, and virtual reality can provide a strong sense of place, richer than text and photographs and more interactive than cinema. Constructing these sites demands a great deal of visual and textual information, which must be organized, integrated, and coded for delivery. Existing authoring packages are general-purpose, not specifically for architectural applications, and require technical sophistication. In our process for building Place Based Web Resources (PBWRs), after assembling photographic, drawing, text, and audio resources, the author follows a straightforward series of steps. The Hagia Sophia Web Resource resulted from this process; it includes panoramic pictures, photographs and interpretive text about the building and a VRML model.

  • Authors: Mark A. Ehrhardt, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2000

Sketch that Scene for Me: Creating Virtual Worlds by Freehand Drawing

eCAADe

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    With the Web people can now view virtual three-dimensional worlds and explore virtual space. Increasingly, novice users are interested in creating 3D Web sites. Virtual Reality Modeling Language gained ISO status in 1997, although it is being supplanted by the compatible Java3D API [1] and alternative 3D Web technologies compete [2]. Viewing VRML scenes is relatively straightforward on most hardware platforms and browsers, but currently there are only two ways to create 3D virtual scenes: One is to code the scene directly using VRML. The other is to use existing CAD and modeling software, and save the world in VRML format or convert to VRML from some other format. Both methods are time consuming, cumbersome, and have steep learning curves. Pen-based user interfaces, on the other hand, are for many an easy and intuitive method for graphics input. Not only are people familiar with the look and feel of paper and pencil, novice users also find it less intimidating to draw what they want, where they want it instead of using a complicated tool palette and pull-down menus. Architects and designers use sketches as a primary tool to generate design ideas and to explore alternatives, and numerous computer-based interfaces have played on the concept of "sketch". However, we restrict the notion of sketch to freehand drawing, which we believe helps people to think, to envision, and to recognize properties of the objects with which they are working. SKETCH [3] employs a pen interface to create three-dimensional models, but it uses a simple language of gestures to control a three-dimensional modeler; it does not attempt to interpret freehand drawings. In contrast, our support of 3D world creation using freehand drawing depend on users' traditional understanding of a floor plan representation. Igarashi et al. [4] used a pen interface to drive browsing in a 3D world, by projecting the user's marks on the ground plane in the virtual world. Our Sketch-3D project extends this approach, investigating an interface that allows direct interpretation of the drawing marks (what you draw is what you get) and serves as a rapid prototyping tool for creating 3D virtual scenes.

  • Author: Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2000

An Experiment in Design Collaboration

Automation in Construction

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Computer supported communication and collaboration among partners in the building design and construction process are no longer mere possibilities, but, given the will and know-how of the participants, a reality. Team members could work on a building design at any place, simultaneously together (synchronously) or separately (asynchronously), while the latest state of the design would always be available in a shared database. But to be successful, this emerging type of cooperation often requires new design and communication methods. This paper documents an experimental approach to design collaboration, tested in an intensive, one-week long Virtual Design Studio exercise involving three academic institutions. It briefly describes the structure and goals of the studio exercise, the methodologies applied, the resulting process of collaboration, and the lessons learned.

  • Authors: Branko Kolarevic, Gerhard Schmitt, Urs Hirschberg, Daniel Kurmann, Brian R Johnson

2000

Sustaining Studio Culture- How well do internet tools meet the needs of Virtual Design Studios

eCAADe

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The Internet beckons seductively to students. The prospect of nearly instantaneous communication with acquaintances spread across the face of the earth is alluring. The ease with which rich graphical content can be made available to the world is stunning. The possibility of a design being seen by friends, family, and famous architects is tantalizing. Faculty are drawn by the potent synergy and learning that can be found in the opposition and cooperation of different cultural roots. It is probable that entier design studio sequences will be offered through distance-learning programs in the near future. Is that a good idea? Much has been written about 'virtual design studios' in architecture schools and 'virtual offices' in practice. Most offices have largely or totally abandoned drafting boards in favor of digital tools of production. Yet, regarding design, Ken Sanders, author of The Digital Architect and Manager of Information Service at Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Partnership (ZGF), of Portland, Oregon, has written 'we still make an effort to locate project teams together and always will'. Production CAD work requires different kinds of interaction than design and design instruction. The experiments have been invaluable in developing strategies for use of the Internet as a component of a design studio series, but rarely depend entirely on use of the Internet for all course communications. In fact, most describe fairly isolated efforts to augment some aspect of traditional design environments using Internet tools (ftp, email, web). A few have implemented new pedagogic or collaboration paradigms (e.g., ETH's phase(x) ). This paper considers the traditional design studio in terms of formal and informal activities, characterizes the major Internet technologies with regard to the resulting interaction issues. In particular, it describes an area of informal work group communications that appears to be ill-supported with existing tools. The paper goes on to describe a web-based collaboration tool which was developed to address the need for less formal communication. The context for this development is the concept of a fully distributed collaboration environment with particular attention to questions of informal communication. Finally, it describes how the tool was deployed in an experimental 'web studio' setting and student responses to use of the tool.

  • Author: Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2000

Intentions in and Relations among Design Drawings

Design Studies

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Designers use drawings to explore alternatives and to test ideas. We report here on two studies on design and drawing. The first study of design drawing symbols aims to determine whether and to what extent it is possible to infer, interpret, or even guess what a designer was thinking about by looking at the drawings she has made. In the second study we examined a collection of drawings for the design of a house to investigate the systems of design transformations. Drawings are characterized by drawing style, projection type, and key elements. We analyzed the relationships among the drawings and developed a notation system for documenting these relationships.

  • Authors: Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross, Bennett Neiman, Craig Zimring
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2000

Development Simulator: A Tool for Architects and Urban Designers

M.arch Thesis Proposal

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Design is not always about aesthetic values anymore, but rather the orchestra of how the buildings and environments fit into the city fabric, how they achieve goals in terms of city regulations, and how the numbers work to fulfill the developments of the project. Architects and urban designers are in the side that should satisfy these whole aspects - so not only the buildings are beautiful in the drawing plans or in the computer screen, but also they are feasible to be built and developed. In designing a building or environment, some variables existed. These variables can be a fixed number or conditions, i.e. city regulations, parking standard, footprint for typology of uses and urban design guidelines; some numbers or aspects can be modified according to design i.e. building height, setback, composition of uses, architectural articulations etc. Combining these values will give some directions of how the envelope or the massing of the buildings will be. These measurable criteria are important and should be accounted at early stage of design.

  • Author: Doddy Samiaji
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2000

Tracking the move: Experimentation of a computational method for studying environment and pedestrian movement relationships in urban places

M Arch thesis proposal

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This research thesis attempts to use computer technology in urban studies to understand how culture and society are embedded specific relational patterns that constitute the architecture of urban space. A successful urban space is used space, and most urban space use is movement. Therefore, the main purpose of the thesis is to propose a computational method that is used to study pedestrian movement in small urban spaces, in order to provoke a sense of people-place awareness for architects and urban designers during the designing. The understanding of pedestrian and environment relationships will lead the designers to create a better urban place where social life --contacting between people-- can be stimulated. The thesis, then, presents a sample experimentation of how this proposed method can be implemented.

  • Author: Preechaya Therakomen
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2000

The Symbiosis between Physical and Virtual Environment

independent study proposal

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This research will explore the basic definitions in many aspects which identify both physical and virtual environments. It will also investigate in-depth meanings hidden behind as well as the boundary that differentiates these two worlds. Beyond the dynamic generation of spatial representation, the research will be focusing on the integration of the virtual reality with the built environment and its effects on our future culture and society. With the opposite nature of these two man-made based environment, virtual and physical spaces can be seen and made to be interdependent and complimentary. Therefore, the physical and virtual environments have been entering the state of symbiosis.

  • Author: Preechaya Therakomen
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2000

Live and Direct: A Research and Development Facility for Robotics and Artificial Intelligence Applications

M Arch

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This thesis proposed a design project focusing on creating a center for the incorporation, assembly, and demonstration of cutting edge research in AI applications. The project s client is an Institute dedicated to developing the platform for general intelligence by assembling current research and technologies into composite prototypes that push the boundaries of artificial beings. This center also proposes an interactive forum in which the general public can experience the results of the research first hand as well as learn about past projects, attend lectures and presentations, and other activities related to this endeavor and its implications to humanity.

  • Author: Brian Jeffrey Palidar
  • Document: [ pdf ]

2000

Immersive Redliner: Collaborative Design in Cyberspace

ACADIA

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The Immersive Redliner supports annotation of three-dimensional artifacts in collaborative design. It enables team members to drop annotation markers in a VRML world that are linked to comment text stored on a server. Visitors to the world later can review the design annotations in the locations where they were made. We report on two phases of the Redliner project: the first involves a hypothetical design scenario, the second a real application on a rehabilitation in a residence building in Strasbourg.

  • Authors: Thomas Jung, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1999

The 24 Hour Design Cycle: An Experiment in Design Collaboration Over the Internet

CAADRIA

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper desribes a Virtual Design Studio exercise involving three academic institutions -- University of Hong Kong (China), ETH Zurich (Switzerland), and University of Washington, Seattle (USA) -- whereby teachers and students, obviously on three different continents in three different time zones, roughly eight hours apart, were working on a common design project using computer-aided design systems, video-conferencing and a web-based central database that managed and displayed all works throughout the process. The 24 hour design cycle is a metaphor for a more open and international approach to design, facilitated through computer networks. It implies a new form of collective authorship and distributed credits and thus deals with some of the essential challenges and opportunities the internet poses to creative disciplines.

  • Authors: Urs Hirschberg, Gerhard Schmitt, David Kurmann, Branko Kolarevic, Brian R Johnson, Dirk Donath
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1999

Virtual Design Studio 1998 - a Place2Wait

  • Authors: Dirk Donath, Ernst Kruijff, H. Regenbrecht, Urs Hirschberg, Brian R Johnson, Branko Kolarevic, Jerzy Wojtowicz

1999

Collaborative Design with NetDraw

CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The paper describes NetDraw, a Java-based object oriented drawing program that employs a server-client architecture to provide a shared drawing environment for collaborative design. NetDraw goes beyond conventional shared whiteboard applications in its support for concurrency control, groups and constraints, and ephemeral gesture objects. Small and simple enough that users can learn it quickly, NetDraw is designed to run on small platforms such as handheld computers. We describe NetDraw's features and an early evaluation of its use.

  • Authors: Dongqiu Qian, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1999

Drawing and Design Intentions -- an Investigation of freehand drawing conventions in design

Design Thinking Research Symposium

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Designers use drawings to explore alternatives and to test their ideas employing different symbols and configurations for different design concerns, or tasks. We argue that designer's attention to, and interest in, these various tasks can be determined by examining the drawing symbols and spatial arrangements. We have conducted several empirical studies on design and drawing to determine whether, and to what extent, it is possible to infer, interpret, or even guess what a designer was thinking about by looking at the drawings she has made.

  • Authors: Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross, Craig Zimring
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1999

From Critiquing to Representational Talkback: Computer Support for Revealing Features in Design

Knowledge Based Systems Journal

  • Authors: Y Kumiyo Nakakoji Yamamoto, S Suzuki, S Takada, Mark D Gross.

1999

Sketches and Their Functions in Early Design: A Retrospective Analysis of a Pavilion House

Design Thinking Research Symposium

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    We performed a case study of the design of a house to investigate the underlying reference systems of design transformation. In the collection of sketches we examined we found that the type of drawing could often be identified by a combination of drawing style, projection type, and key elements found in the drawing. Our study presents the collection of design drawings made by the architect, and an analysis of the relationships among the drawings.

  • Authors: Bennett Neiman, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1999

EVAL: A Web-based Design Review System

ACADIA

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) recently conducted a design competition in which design projects were presented using web sites. As a consequence it was not necessary to co-locate reviewers in order to view submissions. Since the proposals took the form of web sites, it seemed appropriate to use the web as the medium for conducting the review. The review thus became and opportunity to explore online design studio review strategies as well as competition issues. As there were over 600 entries in the competition, each of which was to be reviewed by at least three reviewers, the review process presented certain logistical challenges that might not pertain to a 'normal' design studio. Using a globally-distributed review panel and jury meant that synchronous review of projects would not be possible, and that face-to-face interaction between jurors would be lost. This paper describes the review system which was developed to address this need. It also profiles the conduct of the review itself, and offers some observations about performance, ergonomics and related design issues for future efforts.

  • Authors: Brian R Johnson, Branko Kolarevic
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1999

Integrating Digital Media in Design Studio: Six Paradigms

ACSA

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Digital media are transforming the practice and teaching of architecture. This article outlines various ways to integrate computation and digital media into design teaching. It describes six alternative models for 'digital design studios'. Each of these models has been explored in teaching practice to varying degrees and at different schools. This article aims to locate these different approaches and, in a preliminary fashion, to organize efforts to employ digital media in design studio education.

  • Authors: Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1999

Digital Media and the Language of Vision

ACADIA

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Digital media are transforming the practice and teaching of architectural design. Information technologies provide us not only better production and rendering tools but also the ability to model, manipulate, and to see design in new ways. This paper outlines a thirteen-step methodology in a design seminar that teaches design students how to see, think, and form space using both digital and physical media.

  • Authors: Bennett R Neiman, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1999

The Sundance Lab - 'Design systems of the future'

ACADIA Quarterly

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The last thirty years have seen the development of powerful new tools for architects and planners: CAD, 3D modeling, digital imaging, geographic information systems, and real time animated walkthroughs. That's just the beginning. Based on our experience with CAD tools, analysis of design practice, and an understanding of computer hardware and software, we are out to invent the next generation of tools. We think architects should be shakers and makers, not just consumers, of computer aided design.

  • Authors: Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1999

Immersive redlining and annotation of 3D design models on the Web

CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The Web now enables people in different places to view three-dimensional models of buildings and places in a collaborative design discussion. Already design firms with offices around the world are exploiting this capability. In a typical application, design drawings and models are posted by one party for review by others, and a dialogue is carried out either synchronously using on line streamed video and audio, or asynchronously using email, chat room, and bulletin board software. However, most of these systems do not allow designers to embed annotations and proposed design changes in the three-dimensional design model under discussion. We present a working prototype of a system that has these capabilities and describe the configuration of Web technologies we used to construct it.

  • Authors: Thomas Jung, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1998

Digital Clay: Deriving Digital Models from Freehand Sketches, in ACADIA

ACADIA

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    During the initial stages of design, it is not uncommon to find an architect scribbling furiously with a thick pencil. Later in the design process, however, one might not be surprised to encounter the same individual in front of a computer monitor, manipulating three dimensional models in a series of activities that seem completely divorced from their previous efforts. Armed with evidence that sketching is an effective design method for creative individuals, we also recognize that modeling and rendering applications are invaluable design development and presentation tools, and we naturally seek a connection between these methodologies. We therefore present Digital Clay, a working prototype of a sketch recognition program that interprets gestural and abstracted projection drawings and constructs appropriate three dimensional digital models.

  • Authors: Eric Schweikardt, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1998

The ArchiMedia Multisite: A Distributed Architectural Case Study Catalog

Syllabus

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The Web is a chaotic place. Anyone with a computer connected to the Internet can put up a web server and distributed files with whatever content they wish, for as short or long a period as they wish. In the web's infancy, and within certain niches today, manually maintained 'favorite links' provide the means for a tightly-knit community to track the sites of interest to them. Once the number of sites became large it was clear that automated tools were needed, and search sites such as AltaVista, Excite, and Yahoo emerged or evolved. These services use an automated browser to retrieve, index, and catalog web pages at intervals. Searches of the database yields the web address, or URL, of pages containing specific words. For those seeking to use the Web as a teaching resource, these are not really adequate. The databases simply catalog pages according to the words they contain, rather than the meaning of those words, so it is very difficult to compose searches using discipline-specific but common wording. A search of AltaVista for 'prairie school' yielded some 100,000 documents! A search on 'Frank Lloyd Wright' found some 10,000 documents, and a quick look at the first 100 indicated that every one was actually about the architect. Amongst this seeming treasure-trove however are pages cataloging stolen merchandise (a portfolio of FLW drawings), and other chaff. Even if all this information is correct, sorting through it is time consuming. The project described in this paper has several facets, including the goal of increasing the availability of quality architectural case studies, but it also represents an effort to develop a content 'multi-site.' That is, a source of web-based information that might become both the place where an author would want to be listed, and the place where the researcher would think to go to find data.

  • Author: Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1998

Development Of a Case Study: 'Multi-Site' On The World Wide Web

CAADRIA

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Seeking to enhance the availability and quality of architectural case studies, we examine the web, believing that it may help to simplify authorship, distribution, and navigation of a catalog of case studies. A disk-based multi-media prototype from an earlier effort has been converted to the web and generalized to create a template. Warehousing and navigation of multiple case studies forms the main focus of the current project. Two existing models. monolithic web sites and web rings, are considered and rejected. A third approach is developed which promises to provide a low-budget low-overhead infrastructure within which to house an indefinite number of case studies, while permitting free-form browsing of the collection. The approach which we have developed creates what we call a 'multi-site'.

  • Authors: Brian R Johnson, Marietta Millet
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1998

The Right Tool at the Right Time

PhD

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Designers use different symbols and configurations in their drawings to explore alternatives and to communicate with each other. For example, when thinking about spatial arrangements, they draw bubble diagrams; when thinking about natural lighting, they draw a sun symbol and light rays. Given the connection between drawings and thinking, one should be able infer design intentions from a drawing and ultimately use such inferences to program a computer to understand our drawings. This dissertation reports findings from empirical studies on drawings and explores the possibility of using the computer to automatically infer designer's concerns from the drawings a designer makes.

  • Author: Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1998

Computer Assisted design

Encyclopedia of Housing, Willem van Vliet, ed.


1998

Smart House

Encyclopedia of Housing

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    A "smart house" that responds to the dweller's needs and desires by adjusting lighting, temperature, even ambient music, has appeared in science fiction for much of the twentieth century. From LeCorbusier's vision of the house as a machine for living, to Negroponte's Architecture Machine, home automation technologies are the latest extension of a century-long fascination with housing and mechanism. However, with the development of new electronic technologies and their integration with older, traditional building technologies, the intelligent home is at last becoming a real possibility.

  • Author: Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1998

The Ceren Web Resource: Enabling Students to Become Anthropologists In A Virtual Site

SIGGRAPH

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Using content from the University of Colorado Anthropology Department and our own knowledge of multimedia system development at the College of Architecture and Planning, we are developing interesting, informative and interactive web learning resources. Our topic: an anthropology site called Ceren, an ancient agricultural village in western El Salvador buried by volcanic ash over fourteen hundred years ago. Our goal: to create a virtual anthropology site on the web, with interactive QuickTime Virtual Reality, interactive database search tools, image applets, and detailed computer renderings of what the site may have once looked like. Currently in use by Anthropology classes at the University of Colorado, the Ceren Web Resource incorporates an array of web multimedia technology to link visual images with original excavation text, notes and discoveries. The Ceren web resource has attempted to lead the way in exploring the use of hypermedia tools in education. We aim to go beyond a tour of ancient buildings and enable students to begin to think and act like anthropologists. Using the Ceren site, students can participate in the excavation process as on location anthropologists, putting together the puzzling pieces of what ancient household life in Meso-America was truly like.

  • Authors: Jenniffer Lewin, Mark Ehrhardt, Mark D Gross

1998

Virtual Design Studio: Multiplying Time

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper describes a Virtual Design Studio exercise involving three academic institutions—University of Hong Kong, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Z•rich, and University of Washington in Seattle—whereby teachers and students, obviously on three different continents and in three different time zones, roughly eight hours apart, tried to "multiply time". Students were asked to design a house for a Chinese painter and a Swiss writer on a small island in Puget Sound near Seattle. In a short and intensive design charrette, students explored in five different phases various dualities associated with the given design problem. In each phase students were asked to select someone else's design, thus implicitly forming design teams. The paper describes the structure and goals of the studio exercise, the methodologies applied, the resulting design processes, and the lessons learned.

  • Authors: B Kolarevic, G Schmitt, U Hirschberg, D Kurmann, Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1998

Collaboration and Coordination in Architectural Design: approaches to computer mediated work

Automation in Construction

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    We report on three projects that deal respectively with synchronous collaborative design, asynchronous collaborative design, and design coordination. In each of these sections, we provide an overview of the project, directing the interested reader to our more detailed reports on the work. We conclude with a description of several current efforts that suggest connections among these projects, and perhaps a way to incorporate them into a larger framework for collaborative design

  • Authors: Mark D Gross, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Raymond J. McCall, Wayne V. Citrin, Paul Hamill, Adrienne Warmack, Kyle S. Kuczun
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1998

Interactive Systems for Supporting the Emergence of Concepts and IdeasConcepts and Ideas

SIGCHI Bulletin

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This workshop was concerned with the fact that current computer application systems are best at dealing with well-defined materials rather than in helping users create new concepts. For example, it is easier to use computers to draft precise drawings than to quickly sketch new configurations; it is easier to craft polished documents than to jot ideas and play with them. A body of research is beginning to accumulate that explores systems, such as pen-based sketching applications, to support the user in dealing with ill-defined concepts and materials. The key point of concern is that a person needs be able to easily create a visual representation, even for abstract and verbal ideas, and then respond to it perceptually and to interact with it in order to discover new arrangements and shapes suggesting new ideas. Thus, new concepts emerge from the concrete materials of the representation.

  • Authors: Ernest Edmonds, Thomas Moran, Ellen Yi-Luen Do

1998

An Experiment in Design Collaboration

ACADIA

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Computer supported communication and collaboration among partners in the building design and construction process are no longer mere possibilities, but, given the will and know-how of the participants, a reality. Team members could work on a building design at any place, simultaneously together (synchro- nously) or separately (asynchronously), while the latest state of the design would always be available in a shared database. But to be successful, this emerging type of cooperation often requires new design and communication methods. This paper documents an experimental approach to design collaboration, tested in an intensive, one-week long Virtual Design Studio exercise involving three academic institutions. It briefly describes the structure and goals of the studio exercise, the methodologies applied, the resulting process of collaboration, and the lessons learned.

  • Authors: B Kolarevic, G Schmitt, U Hirshberg, D Kurmann, Brian R Johnson.
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1998

Representational Talkback: An Approach to Support Writing as Design

Asia Pacific Computer Human Interaction Conference

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Designing documents, such as writing a technical paper, manual or WWW home pages, starts with a goal in mind but often does not simply proceed in a top-down problem solving style. The document design process consists of a cycle of interpretation, modification and understanding. It requires both generating parts (words, sentences, and paragraphs) and structuring them while exploring what to write. Our research aims at supporting this collage or trial-and-error style of writing as design, drawing on the concepts of re ec- tion in action and hermeneutics. We propose representational talkback", which is feedback from intermedi- ate situations that emerge during writing. We postulate that by providing writers with appropriate representations to amplify this talkback, we enhance their writing process. This paper presents a theoretical framework of our approach and reports a user study using a prototype system ART (Amplifying Representational Talkback) to understand what types of talkback are necessary during writing and possible representations for them.

  • Authors: Y Yamamoto, Mark D Gross, S Takada, K Nakakoji
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1998

3D Modeling of Historic Makkah

CAADRIA

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    In this paper, we outline the problem of historic preservation and the opportunities that rigorous CAD models provide, describe the particular class of buildings in Makkah that we are concerned with, and discuss the modeling strategy we employ that takes advantage of common elements, symmetry and repetition in the buildings' construction, and standard operations in current CAD programs. We briefly discuss the tools for architectural heritage recording, construction of CAD models of historic buildings, and the systematic analysis of built form. Finally, the paper shows an example of using the method to streamline the construction of accurate CAD models.

  • Authors: Nabeel Koshak, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1997

Tools for visual and spatial analysis of CAD models: implementing computer tools as a means to thinking about architecture

CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The paper describes a suite of spatial analysis programs to support architectural design. Building these computational tools not only supports the task of spatial analysis for designers but it also helps us think about the spatial perception. We argue that building design software is an important vehicle for understanding architecture, using our efforts to build various visual and spatial analysis tools as examples.

  • Authors: Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1997

Computability of Design Diagrams: an empirical study of diagram conventions in design

CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Designers draw diagrams to think about architectural concepts and design concerns. We are interested in programming a computer to recognize and interpret design diagrams to deliver appropriate tools for the design task at hand. We conducted empirical studies to find out if designers share drawing conventions when designing. In this paper we first discuss reasons to investigate design diagrams. Then we describe our experiment on diagramming for designing an architect's office. The experiment results show that designers use different diagramming conventions when thinking about different design concerns. We discuss and report our efforts to implement a freehand drawing program.

  • Authors: Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1997

Inferring Design Intentions from Sketches

proceedings of Computer Aided Architectural Design Research In Asia(CAADRIA1997)

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Designers draw to explore ideas and solutions. We look at empirical studies of the use of drawing in design, including our own work on the connection between graphic symbols and specific design concerns. We describe an empirical study on sketching for designing an architect's office. We found that designers use different drawing conventions when thinking about different design concerns. We are implementing a freehand drawing program to recognize these drawing conventions and to deliver appropriate knowledge based support for the task at hand.

  • Authors: Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1997

Resolving archaeological site data with 3D computer modeling: The case of Ceren

Automation in Construction

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper reports on our experience working with a team of anthropologists to construct three-dimensional computer graphic models of Ceren, an archaeological site in western El Salvador, using inexpensive hardware and software. In constructing the model we discovered various ambiguities and inconsistencies in the raw site data and drawings we were provided. We resolved these problems by analysis and reinterpretation of the data, working closely with our archaeologist collaborator. What began as a simple exercise in rendering developed into a collaborative research effort to understand and interpret the source data. The process of computer modeling forced us to re-examine, analyze and interpret the information from the site.

  • Authors: Jenniffer Lewin, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1997

The Design Studio Approach: Learning Design in Architecture Education

EduTech

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The practice of designing has common features, regardless of the domain in which it is exercised. The artifacts designed may have physical form, as in mechanical and civil engineering, graphic design, architecture and physical planning; or they may be non- physical, such as software, music, dance, or economic plans. No matter what domain, designing involves certain characteristic activities that must be learned. Surprisingly, architecture is one of the few subjects where design is the primary focus of university education; therefore architectural education offers valuable lessons for teaching design in other domains.

  • Authors: Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1997

Collaboration and Coordination in Architectural Design: approaches to computer mediated work

TeamCAD First GVU/NIST Workshop on Collaborative Design, Atlanta, GA

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    In 1993 and 1994, instructors and students of architecture at several universities around the world[*] collaborated briefly on two "virtual design studio" projects. Using off-the-shelf technology of the time--email, CU-See-Me internet video, international conference calls, and exchange of CAD drawings, images, and Quicktime animations--this ambitious project explored the possibility of bringing together diverse members of an international design team together to collaborate on a short term (two week) project. Central to the "Virtual Design Studio" was a 'digital pinup board', an area where participating designers could post and view drawings and textual comments; video links and email exchange provided the media for direct communication media about designs. A report on the project [21] makes clear that the process was not without technical difficulties: a significant amount of communication concerned scheduling and coordinating file formats; disappointingly little was devoted to discussions of design issues. Although it's clear that many of the minor technical problems that inevitably plague a forward-looking effort like the Virtual Design Studio will be solved in the near term, the project also reveals the need for research on software and design practices to make computer mediated design collaboration realize its attractive promise.

  • Authors: Mark D Gross, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Raymond J. McCall, Wayne V. Citrin, Paul Hamill, Adrienne Warmack, Kyle S. Kuczun
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1997

MUD: Exploring Tradeoffs In Urban Design

CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The design of cities and neighborhoods involves multiple stakeholders with various agendas, each comprising multiple criteria. Any design proposal will rank differently against each stakeholder's agenda, and effective participatory design requires that stakeholder interests are mutually understood and negotiated. We describe a program to promote this understanding and negotiation among stakeholders, called MUD, that enables each stakeholder to articulate their criteria for judging designs, to make design proposals, and to score designs against the criteria. By enabling stakeholders with different values and different areas of expertise to exchange design proposals and agendas we hope to foster understanding and stimulate negotiation.

  • Authors: Laura Parker, Ame Elliott, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1997

Hypermedia in Architectural Education: The World Wide Web as a Learning Tool

M.Arch thesis, University of Washington, Dept of Architecture

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Consideration of the World Wide Web as a tool for architectural education, especially through the production, presentation, and cataloging of critical case studies of buildings. Focuses on development of a collaborative paradigm for distributed development of such information through a case study template and central catalog web site. Includes an sample case study.

  • Author: Vijayalakshmi (Viju) Koti
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1997

Collaboration and Coordination in Architectural Design: approaches to computer mediated team work

TeamCAD

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    In 1993 and 1994, instructors and students of architecture at several universities around the world[*] collaborated briefly on two "virtual design studio" projects. Using off-the-shelf technology of the time--email, CU-See-Me internet video, international conference calls, and exchange of CAD drawings, images, and Quicktime animations--this ambitious project explored the possibility of bringing together diverse members of an international design team together to collaborate on a short term (two week) project. Central to the "Virtual Design Studio" was a 'digital pinup board', an area where participating designers could post and view drawings and textual comments; video links and email exchange provided the media for direct communication media about designs. A report on the project [21] makes clear that the process was not without technical difficulties: a significant amount of communication concerned scheduling and coordinating file formats; disappointingly little was devoted to discussions of design issues. Although it's clear that many of the minor technical problems that inevitably plague a forward-looking effort like the Virtual Design Studio will be solved in the near term, the project also reveals the need for research on software and design practices to make computer mediated design collaboration realize its attractive promise.

  • Authors: Mark D Gross, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Ray McCall, Wayne Citrin, Paul Hamill, Adrienne Warmack, Kyle Kuczun
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1997

Network Design: Tasks & Tools

ACM Designing Interactive Systems

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Designers often draw to produce artifacts for thinking and communicating about their designs. These artifacts (drawings) provide the designer with various levels of abstraction to conceptually frame the design problem. Because network designers traditionally make drawings throughout the design process, we propose that the computational environment should facilitate and capitalize on this activity. We describe a suite of computer based network design tools that employ freehand drawing as an interface.

  • Authors: Kyle Kuczun, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1997

Thinking with Diagrams

Thiking with Diagrams Interdisciplinary Workshop

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The paper discusses the use of freehand diagrams in architectural design. It examines the roles of diagrams in various contexts: pedagogical books, design studies, designers? introspective accounts and empirical studies of drawing in design. It offers several examples of thinking with diagrams in design and concludes with a discussion of the requirements for computational support for the diagrams in design thinking.

  • Author: Ellen Yi-Luen DoMark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1997

Support for Mobile Pen-Based Applications

Proc. Third ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom'97)

  • Authors: Wayne V Citrin, Mark D Gross, Paul Hamill, Adrienne S Warmack

1997

Not Just Another Pretty Face: Image and argument in an archaeological web site

Computer Assisted Architectural Design Futures 97

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    We are developing a web site with photorealistic animations and virtual reality walkthroughs of architecture and artifacts at an archaeological site in El Salvador to support research and teaching about household anthropology in sixth-century Meso-America. To counter the false sense of realism and truth these experiences often convey we have developed Image Arguments, a scheme for integrating with images the arguments and data that they are based on. We provide this contextual information using a server side database and client side Java applets, enabling viewers to examine the assumptions and the data behind the images.

  • Authors: Jenniffer Lewin, Mark Erhardt, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1997

A Web-based Architectural Case Study System

ACSA

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper describes a project to develop an extensible, low-tech, cooperative case-study collection via the world wide web. The project includes template files which persons with access to a web server but minimal technical knowledge can download and utilize to assemble new web-based case studies. Anticipating that other case study repositories have been or will be developed by different researchers, and wishing to provide greater value than that afforded by simple HTML links, the overall system is designed to form what we call a multi-site. Using HTML 'frames' each case study is linked together via a central administrative database to form a shared case study pool. This new multi-site approach to cooperative web projects offers a means to fill the gap between simple manual linking of HTML pages and searches conducted using global indexing engines such as AltaVista, Web Crawler, or Yahoo.

  • Authors: Brian R Johnson, Marietta Millet
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1996

Elements that Follow Your Rules: Constraint Based CAD layout

Proceedings of Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) 96

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The paper reports on CKB (Construction Kit Builder) -a prototype CAD program that designers can program with positioning and assembly rules for layout of building elements. The program's premise is that designing can be understood as a process of making and following rules for the selection, position, and dimension of built and space elements. CKB operates at two distinct levels of design: the technical system designer, who makes the rules, and the end designer, who lays out the material and space elements to make a design. CKB supports two kinds of rules with constraint based programming techniques: grid and zone based position rules, and assembly rules that position elements with respect to one another. The paper discusses the rational for CKB and describes its implementation.

  • Author: Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1996

Resolving archaeological site data with 3D computer modeling: Thecase of Ceren

"Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy"proceedings of ACADIA 1996

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper reports on our experience working with a team of anthropologists to construct three-dimensional computer graphic models of Ceren, an archaeological site in western El Salvador, using inexpensive hardware and software. In constructing the model we discovered various ambiguities and inconsistencies in the raw site data and drawings we were provided. We resolved these problems by analysis and reinterpretation of the data, working closely with our archaeologist collaborator. What began as a simple exercise in rendering developed into a collaborative research effort to understand and interpret the source data. The process of computer modeling forced us to re-examine, analyze and interpret the information from the site.

  • Authors: Jenniffer Lewin, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1996

Distributed Architectures for Pen-Based Input and Diagram Recognition

ACM Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    We present a system supporting pen-based input and diagram recognition that employs a personal digital assistant (PDA) as an intelligent input device for the system. Functionality is distributed between the PDA and the main computer, with the PDA performing low-level shape recognition and editing functions, and the back-end computer performing high-level recognition functions, including recognition of spatial relations between picture elements. This organization provides a number of advantages over conventional pen-based systems employing simple digitizing tablets. It provides the opportunity to use hardware specially designed for shape recognition and editing in a general diagram recognition system, it allows for improved performance through parallel processing, and it allows diagram entry to be performed remotely through use of the PDA front end in the field, with recognized shapes subsequently downloaded to the main diagram recognizer. We discuss the overall organization of the system, as well as the individual pieces and the communication between them, and describe two ongoing projects employing this architecture.

  • Authors: Wayne V Citrin, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1996

PDA based Graphical Interchange for Field Service and Repair Workers

Computers and Graphics

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    We present an ongoing project to develop a system to provide field service workers with timely and accurate service information. The system will allow workers to download diagrams or photographs from a host computer's central database onto a PDA. The workers will be able to annotate the diagrams to reflect work performed, and later upload the annotations to the host computer, where they will be integrated into an updated database. Diagram recognition functionality is distributed between the PDA (which performs low-level shape and handwriting recognition) and the host computer (which performs high-level domain-based diagram recognition). Distributing the functionality offers a number of advantages: it allows the relatively resource-poor PDA to be part of a powerful diagram recognition environment, it allows the use of standardized hardware-based recognition facilities in a domain-based recognition system, and it allows off-line drawing recognition and storage of diagrams, thereby avoiding excessive use of slow or expensive communications channels.

  • Authors: Wayne V Citrin, Mark D Gross

1996

The Right Tool at the Right Time - PhD Dissertation Proposal

Georgia Institute of Technology

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The goal of many intelligent computer aided design systems, and in particular knowledge based systems, is to provide advice in the form of critiques, relevant cases or examples, and the results of simulations. How can these systems decide when and what advice to provide the designer? Specifically, can intelligent design systems determine what advice to give designers by looking at their drawing? The drawing conventions that designers share in designing may be a good indication of what contexts and concerns they are interested at the time. If so, this raises the question: what drawing conventions should a computer understand?

  • Author: Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1996

Structuring Cases in a Case-Based Design Aid

Third Congress on Design Computing, , Anaheim, A/C/E '96, American Society of Civil Engineers

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Architectural designers use a wide variety of reasoning and decision-making aids such as rules, prototypes and specific examples. In this paper we discuss how we have structured cases in a case-based design aid called ARCHIE to allow designers to navigate through the database in a flexible manner yet maintain links between general statements and specific examples. In particular, we focus on the way in which design problems are structured, aimed at helping both novice and experienced designers recognize tacit knowledge

  • Authors: Craig Zimring, Sonit Bafna, Ellen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1996

Demonstrating the Electronic Cocktail Napkin: a paper-like interface for early design

ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing (CHI 96)

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    We demonstrate the Electronic Cocktail Napkin, a pen based interface for conceptual design. The project goal is to support design by recognizing, interpreting, and managing drawings, and to serve as an interface for knowledge-based critiquing, simulation, and information retrieval. We demonstrate the Napkin's facilities for end-user programmable recognition and interpretation, drawing management, and multi-user collaboration. We show applications of the Napkin: (1) indexing visual databases and (2) a front end to a local area network design program.

  • Authors: Mark D Gross, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1996

Why can't CAD be more like Lego?

Automation in Construction Journal, 5:285-300.

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The paper describes CKB (Construction Kit Builder), a computational design environment based on defining, then working within, a system of components and rules for their placement. In construction details, the components and placement rules are standard; in less routine design tasks they are not. CKB uses a constraint-based, object oriented, system architecture to provide two levels of design support. At the higher level, designers of technical systems use CKB to specify components and rules for their positioning. At the lower level, building designers use CKB to lay out components of these systems.

  • Author: Mark D Gross

1996

Drawing as a Means to Design Reasoning

Artificial Intelligence in Design (AID) 96

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    We investigate the functions of drawing in design and how, based on these functions, a computational sketching environment might support design reasoning. Design, like all problem solving activities, involves reasoning--making decisions, expressing ideas, verifying and evaluating proposals, and ultimately, taking action. For designers, drawing is a vehicle for design reasoning, and therefore the spontaneous marks made on paper during sketching form a partial record of the designer's thinking. Most designers sketch early design ideas with a pencil on paper: sketching is still the quickest and most direct means to produce visual representations of ideas. The ambiguity of free hand sketching allows multiple interpretations and thus stimulates the production of more design alternatives. The linked acts of drawing and looking invite designers to recognize new interpretations of the alternatives they propose. By drawing and looking, designers find visual analogies, remember relevant examples, and discover new shapes based on previously unrecognized geometric configurations in their sketches.

  • Authors: Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1996

A PDA-Based Tool for Collaborative Design, CSCW Demo

CSCW


1996

Reasoning about cases with diagrams

ASCE

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper investigate how diagrams can be used as indices and queries in a case based functional design environment. Case bases for functional design need diagramming support for two reasons: First, most designers prefer to sketch early design ideas with a pen. They sketch diagrams to explore possible adaptations of old cases to current design tasks. Second, functional design tasks that deal with layout configuration such as arranging pipes and wires for building facilities often benefit from previous successful or failure cases. Therefore, we are developing an interactive tool called the Electronic Cocktail Napkin to enable designers to index, access, and adapt case knowledge for design using diagrams. The Napkin program has links to a case based design aid Archie to support reasoning with diagrams for case retrieval.

  • Authors: Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1996

The Right Tool at the Right Time: An Investigation of Freehand Drawing as an Interface to Knowledge based Design Systems

ACADIA

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Designers use different symbols and diagrams in their drawings to explore alternatives and to communicate with each other. Therefore, a useful design environment should attempt to infer the designer's intentions from the drawing and, based on this inference, suggest appropriate computational tools for the task at hand. For example, a layout bubble diagram might activate design cases with similar configurations. Scribbles of view lines on a floor plan might bring up a spatial analysis tool. This research aims to develop an integrated digital sketching environment to support early design activities. The paper proposes RT2, an intelligent sketch environment that provides the designers with the right tools at the right time.

  • Author: Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1996

Ambiguous Intentions: A paper-like interface for creative design

proceedings of 9th Annual Symposium for User Interface Software and Technology (UIST 1996)

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Interfaces for conceptual and creative design should recognize and interpret drawings. They should also capture users' intended ambiguity, vagueness, and imprecision and convey these qualities visually and through interactive behavior. Freehand drawing can provide this information and it is a natural input mode for design. We describe a pen-based interface that acquires information about ambiguity and precision from freehand input, represents it internally, and echoes it to users visually and through constraint based edit behavior.

  • Authors: Mark D Gross, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1995

Shape Based Reminding as an aid to Creative Design

CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper describes "Drawing Analogies," a shape based reminding program that uses freehand sketches to index and retrieve visual references for creative designing. Architects often employ reference images from books, magazines, and other visual collections to find forms they can adopt and adapt into their designs. We give examples of how designers use drawing and analogies and describe our approach to finding similar drawings. We argue that a graphical reminding scheme based on sketching can help designers find interesting references from various domains.

  • Authors: Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1995

What's in a Diagram that a Computer should Understand

CAAD Futures

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This paper reports on an experiment to test the feasibility of using a diagramming tool to access an architectural knowledge base. Our hypothesis is that designers only use a small set of conventional elements to make diagrams of architectural concepts. If this is true, then a scheme for retrieving information from computer knowledge bases using diagrams would work. Therefore we asked designers to make diagrams from texts, to interpret diagrams into texts, to pair diagrams and texts, and to comment on existing pairs from the case base. We found from the experiment that common features are shared between different designers' diagrams and texts.

  • Author: Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1995

Drawing Analogies - Supporting Creative Architectural Design with Visual References

Computational Model of Creative Design (HI' 95)

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Creative architectural designers often employ forms from other domains, retrieving, adapting, and including them in designs in whole or in part. We focus here on retrieval, searching image collections for relevant forms to support creative designing. Retrieval of images may be indexed on conceptual design features, on function, and (in domains that involve a physical artifact) on visual similarity, or shape. We propose an approach to providing information for creative design that is simple to use and integrated with the act of creative designing, which in architecture is carried out chiefly through sketching and diagramming. We argue that to inspire creativity, image collections from diverse domains can be valuable to the designer. We describe Drawing Analogies, a sketch-based visual reference program.

  • Authors: Mark D Gross, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1995

Finding visual references by sketching

ACADIA

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    In creative and conceptual designing, architects often look to books, magazines, and other collections of images to find forms they can adopt and adapt in designs. On line visual collections are becoming available but typically they are indexed only with descriptive key words. We argue that in addition to key word indexing, which supports retrieval of images based on design concepts or issues, a more directly visual, graphical reminding scheme based on sketches can help designers recall interesting references from various domains. We describe Drawing Analogies, a shape based reminding program that uses hand drawn sketches to index and query visual databases.

  • Authors: Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1995

Supporting Case-Study Use in Design Education: A Computational Case-Based Design Aid for Architecture

ASCE, American Society of Civil Engineers

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Cases play a central role in architectural design education. Many architectural journals, books and magazines are based on case studies of buildings, and instructors commonly use cases in lectures and studio teaching. These cases, which are often descriptions of the form, materials and design strategies of significant buildings, are used by students for a variety of purposes. They help elaborate and refine stated problems, suggest and refine design solutions, help evaluate a completed design and suggest possible alternative solutions. However, appropriate cases are scattered across the print literature and may be difficult to find. Perhaps more important, the ways in which most current cases are written and made accessible to students does not exploit their full potential as pedagogical tools. In this paper we describe "Archie" a "case-based design aid" (CBDA) that provides architecture students rapid and flexible access to evaluated multi-media design cases. A CBDA is a computational aid that provides novice and experienced designers access to cases that they can then adapt to solve their current design problem. Based on the theory and technology of case-based reasoning, a CBDA uses the computer to store and access cases and allows human designers to do their own adaptation. Archie is aimed at aiding teaching of conceptual design. It is intended to help students: 1) understand the intentions of the range of stakeholders who have an impact on a building project, such as designers, users, clients, and builders; 2) develop more explicit statements of goals and criteria for success of their designs; 3) make links between general goals and specific design solutions; 4) link written statements of goals and needs to graphic representations; 5) keep design problems open long enough to allow students to explore an appropriately wide range of possible solutions.

  • Authors: Craig Zimring, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Eric Domeshek, Janet L Kolodner
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1995

Indexing visual databases in architecture with diagrams

Visual Databases

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Rich visual databases of buildings and places will oon become available in electronic form. Already most niversities are digitizing their slide collections and as copyright issues are sorted out, image collections will become available on CD-ROM and over the world networks. Several research prototypes have examined interfaces and applications for computer-based visual collections(Bakergem 1990; Clayton and Wiesenthal 1991), and at least one digital library of architectural images, the Great Buildings Collection, is commercially available on CD-ROM (Matthews 1994). However little work has been done to integrate these collections into computer based design processes, or on extending traditional keyword schemes to index them. The traditional twentieth century architectural visual database--the slide library--is indexed by a list of keywords, which identify images of buildings and places by name, geographic location, architect, date built, as well as building type and style. Sophisticated indexing schemes such as the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) provide detailed ways to characterize features of buildings (Getty Trust 1990). However they require of users a great deal of knowledge about the index categories and subcategories. Ultimately these schemes are based on key word search of a text index. This paper explores the feasibility of a diagram-based visual query scheme to index visual databases for architectural design. In this scheme, an automated visual librarian program finds items in the catalog that match--more or less--a hand drawn diagrammatic query. The paper describes work toward this goal, presenting the results of two pilot experiments and a working prototype of a diagram based retrieval program. The paper is arranged as follows: First, the introduction reviews related work on visual query systems, describes ways slide libraries are currently used, and considers new uses that diagram-based indexing might make possible. The second section describes two pilot experiments that suggest there is enough similarity among architects' diagrams of designs to make diagram based indexing feasible. The third section argues that diagram based indexing is also technically feasible. It presents an `Electronic Cocktail Napkin' program that recognizes hand drawn diagrams, and describes its mechanisms for graphical search and retrieval. The fourth section describes the application of the Cocktail Napkin program to build a working prototype of a visual librarian. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned and scale-up problems, and outline directions for further work.

  • Author: Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1995

Diagram Query and Image Retrieval in Design

ICIP

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Architectural designers are voracious consumers of visual images, which play a crucial role especially in conceptual and creative design. Consequently architectural education revolves around visual references. Yet key word, texture and color retrieval schemes do not suit designers' needs. Designers need shape based retrieval that is driven by free hand drawing, and ways to integrate retrieved images into their design environment. The paper describes Drawing Analogies, an image retrieval scheme for design based on the need for image retrieval that can be integrated with the act of free hand drawing. Our scheme does not perform feature extraction of stored images, but relies on users to create an index of diagram keys. Automatic and semi-automatic feature extraction from database images would be a useful extension of our Drawing Analogies system, but likely would not supplant the need for designer's supervision of the indexing process.

  • Authors: Mark D Gross, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1994

Stretch-A-Sketch, a dynamic diagrammer

IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages (VL '94)

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Stretch-A-Sketch is a pen-based drawing program that combines recognition of hand-drawn glyphs with constraint based maintenance of spatial relations. The recognition program identifies hand drawn glyphs, spatial relations between them, and higher-level configurations, such as graph and tree diagrams and floorplan bubble diagrams. Stretch-A-Sketch then maintains the essential relations in these configurations as the user edits the diagram.

  • Author: Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1994

The Cocktail Napkin, the Fat Pencil, and the Slide Library

ACADIA

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The paper describes recent explorations in sketch recognition and management to support architectural design. The exploration and decision-making of early, conceptual design better suited to freehand drawing, sketching, and diagramming than to the hard-line drawing and construction kit approaches of traditional CAD. However, current sketch programs that simulate paper and pencil fail to take advantage of symbolic manipulation and interactive editing offered by computational environments. The paper presents a `computer as cocktail napkin' program, which recognizes and interprets hand-drawn diagrams and provides a graphical search facility, simulated tracing paper, and a multi-user shared drawing surface. The cocktail napkin is the basis of Stretch-A-Sketch, a constraint based draw program that maintains spatial relations initially specified by a diagram. The cocktail napkin program is also the basis for a query-by-diagram scheme to access a case based design aid as well as to a small collection of images of famous buildings. The paper briefly reviews these extensions of the cocktail napkin program.

  • Author: Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1994

Using diagrams to access a case library of architectural designs

AID

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    We describe the linking of a `computer as cocktail napkin' program that interprets hand-drawn sketches and diagrams with Archie III, a case based design aid, to support case-based reminding in conceptual design. Each case in Archie's library includes stories, problems, and responses indexed and accessed by carefully chosen features. In addition to text, photographs, and drawings, many items in Archie's case library are illustrated by simple diagrams. We have added these diagrams to Archie's indexing scheme, so a hand-drawn sketch can be used to retrieve items tagged with similar diagrams.

  • Authors: Mark D Gross, Craig Zimring, Ellen Yi-Luen Do
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1994

Recognizing and Interpreting Diagrams in Design

Advanced Visual Interfaces

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Hand drawn diagrams are essential tools for thinking and communicating in the early phases of design, yet computer based drawing tools support diagramming and sketching only poorly. Key components of computational support for early design include recognition, interpretation, and management of diagrams The paper describes the motivation for, implementation of, and initial experience with the "computer as cocktail napkin" project, a design environment based on diagrams. It explains low level recognition of glyphs, construction of higher-level recognizers, and routines for managing diagrams in the cocktail napkin prototype.

  • Author: Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1992

Graphical Constraints in CoDraw

Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Visual Languages

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Constraint based draw programs require users to understand and manage relationships between drawing elements. By establishing constraint relationships among elements the user effectively programs the drawing's behavior. This programming task requires a more sophisticated visual interface than conventional draw programs provide. Users must have available in a convenient format information about the structure of the constraints that determine the drawing's interactive edit behavior. This format must support editing and debugging. CoDraw is a constraint based drawing program that can be interactively extended by its users. This paper describes the CoDraw program and its programming interface.

  • Author: Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1991

Grids in Design and CAD

Proceedings of Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    The grid is a useful device for expressing design rules about the placement of elements in a layout. By expressing position rules for elements in relation to a grid, a designer can organize decisions in a layout design problem systematically. Grids and placement rules offer a discipline that can help a designer work effectively to lay out complex designs, and it can also facilitate group design work. Unfortunately, computer supported drawing systems often cannot support this way of working because they lack a sufficiently rich implementation of grids. The Grid Manager module of the CoDraw program shows enhancements useful for architectural Computer Assisted Design. These enhancements would enable effective ways of using the computer as a design tool.

  • Author: Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1990

Inside Out

ACADIA Conference

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    An effort to generate discussion, this paper suggests that between 1980 and 1990 a significant and undesirable change has occurred in academic architectural CAD. We have moved from being developers of ideas and technology on the inside of the development loop to being consumers of products developed in the commercial market place, outside the loop. Certain negative consequences are discussed. Finally, some suggestions are made for turning ourselves "right side out" again.

  • Author: Brian R Johnson
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1990

Relational Modeling

Digital Design Studio (CAAD Futures '89)

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Relational modeling is a simple and powerful extension of parametric design that overcomes this weakness. By viewing relations as reversible rather than one-way, any set of properties can be chosen as input parameters. For example, a relational model that calculates the shadow length of a given building can also be used to calculate the building height given a desired shadow length. In exercising a relational model the designer is not limited to a pre-selected set of input variables but can explore and experiment freely with changes in all parts of the model. Co is a relational modeling environment under development on the Macintosh-II computer, and Co-Draw, a prototype CAD program based on Co. Co?s relational engine and object-oriented database provide a powerful basis for modeling design relations. Co-Draw?s interactive graphics offer a flexible medium for design exploration. Co provides tools for viewing and editing design models in various representations, including spreadsheet cards, tree and graph structures, as well as plan and elevation graphics. Co?s concepts and architecture are described and the implications for design education are discussed.

  • Author: Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1990

Software Development, from Theory to Practice

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Introduction to a conference session called "Software Development, from theory to practice" at ACADIA 1990 in Bozeman Montana.

  • Author: Brian R Johnson

1988

The Quantitative Modelling of Human Spatial Habitability

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    This document reports on a model of spatial habitability developed by Dr. James Wise and others at the University of Washington in which ISOVIST and ISOKIN modeling is employed along with other techniques to analyse possible space-station cabin designs from the standpoint of visual spaciousness and kinesthetic task performance. The document on this site is a cleaned up version of the document available from NASA as http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19890006159_1989006159.pdf

  • Authors: James Wise, Cheryl Geisendorfer, Beverly Tiedje, David Lantrip, Brian R Johnson, Glen Geisendorfer
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1988

Concept Design Games

Design Studies


1986

Design as Exploring Constraints

Ph.D. dissertation

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    A theory of designing is proposed, developed, and illustrated with examples from the domain of physical form. Designing is seen as the exploration of alternative sets of constraints and of the regions of alternative solutions they bound. Designers with different objectives reach different solutions within the same set of constraints, as do designers with the same objectives operating under different constraints. Constraints represent design rules, relations, conventions, and natural laws to be maintained. Some constraints and objectives are given at the outset of a design but many more are adopted along the way. Varying the constraints and the objectives is part of the design process. The theory accounts for various kinds of expertise in designing: knowledge of particular constraints in a design domain; inference--calculating the consequences of design decisions; preference--using objectives to guide decision-making; and partitioning--skill in dividing a large and complicated design into sets of simpler pieces, and understanding the dependencies between decisions. The ability to manage ambiguity and vagueness is an important aspect of design expertise. A computational model supporting the theory is proposed and its implementation discussed briefly. The constraint explorer, a computational environment for designing based on constraint descriptions is described. We see how the constraint explorer might be used in connection with a simple space-planning problem. The problem is taken from the procedures of the Stichting Architecten Research (S.A.R.), a specific architectural design methodology developed to help architects systematically explore layout variability in alternative floorplan designs. Finally, a selected review of related work in constraint-based programming environments, architectural design methods, and the intersection of the two fields is presented.

  • Author: Mark D Gross
  • Document: [ pdf ]

1985

An Analysis of the Benefit-Costs of Alternative Fenestration Assemblies for Internal-Load-Dominant Buildings Noting Solar Heat Gains and Daylighting Provision

Proceedings of the 8th National Passive Solar Conference


1985

Will the Real CAD Please Stand Up

ARCADE - The Northwest Journal for Architecture and Design


1984

Devices to Reduce Cooling Loads for Three Climates


1981

Design of a Moderate-Cost Microcomputer Data Acquisition System for Experimental Investigations of Thermal Systems

  • Abstract: Show Abstract

    Experimental investigations of thermal systems typically require continuous or periodic monitoring of a relatively large number of analog sensors. Examined are the design criteria and instrumentation requirements for data acquisition systems intended for long-term monitoring of the transient thermal response characteristics of buildings. A microcomputer based system of moderate cost, high flexibility, capable of expansion, and requiring no custom-built components is described.

  • Authors: J. L. Garbini, A.F. Emery, C.J. Kippenhan, Dean Heerwagen, Rick Downs, Brian R Johnson

1981

Conventional versus Earth-Sheltered Housing: A Comparative Study of Construction and Operation Costs for Three Cities

Proceedings of the Second National Technical Conference on Earth-Sheltered Buildings, Tulsa, Oklahoma